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INTRODUCTION Bisphosphonates (BPs) are powerful drugs that inhibit bone metabolism. Adverse side effects are rare but potentially severe such as bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). To date, research has primarily focused on the development and progression of BRONJ in cancer patients with bone metastasis, who have received high dosages(More)
Lichen planus (LP) is a relatively common disorder of the stratified squamous epithelia, which is, in many ways, an enigma. This paper is the consensus outcome of a workshop held in Switzerland in 1995, involving a selection of clinicians and scientists with an interest in the condition and its management. The oral (OLP) eruptions usually have a distinct(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) gives rise to a variety of clinical disorders and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. HSV-1 infections are common in oral and perioral area. The aim of the present report was to critically examine the published literature to evaluate the advantages and limitations of therapy of HSV-1 infection in both(More)
The hematologic status of 144 consecutive patients in the United Kingdom with oral disease (69 with recurrent aphthous stomatitis; 75 with other disorders) was examined in an attempt to resolve the controversy as to whether levels of hemoglobin, blood cell numbers and indices, and blood film are adequate in the screening of patients with aphthae. Though(More)
The present article reviews, in detail, the current knowledge of the oral and dental aspects of chronic renal failure (CRF). Worldwide, increasing numbers of persons have CRF; thus, oral health care staffs are increasingly likely to provide care for patients with such disease. Chronic renal failure can give rise to a wide spectrum of oral manifestations,(More)
At a workshop coordinated by the WHO Collaborating Centre of Oral Cancer and Precancer in the United Kingdom, issues related to management of patients affected by oral leukoplakia were discussed by an expert group. The consensus views of the working group are presented here. Although removal of a lesion still seems to be the predominant method of treatment(More)
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS; aphthae; canker sores) is a common condition which is characterized by multiple recurrent small, round or ovoid ulcers with circumscribed margins, erythematous haloes, and yellow or grey floors typically presenting first in childhood or adolescence. RAS occurs worldwide although it appears most common in the developed(More)
The past decade has shown a significant rise in the prevalence of infective syphilis in the developed world, and striking increases in its frequency have occurred in Eastern Europe, particularly the UK, and in the US. Although oral manifestations of syphilis are most likely to be observed during secondary disease, all stages of the disease can give rise to(More)
The oral mucosa's accessibility, excellent blood supply, by-pass of hepatic first-pass metabolism, rapid repair and permeability profile make it an attractive site for local and systemic drug delivery. Technological advances in mucoadhesives, sustained drug release, permeability enhancers and drug delivery vectors are increasing the efficient delivery of(More)