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Mast cells play an essential role during development of inflammation after chemical and immunological insults and have been implicated in tissue fibrosis and angiogenesis. The exact contribution of mast cells to these conditions is largely unknown. In this study, we found that a potent angiogenic and mitogenic polypeptide, basic fibroblast growth factor(More)
We previously reported that mast cells (MCs) serve as a source of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a potent angiogenic and mitogenic polypeptide, suggesting that bFGF may mediate MC-related neovascularization and fibroproliferation. Unlike many other growth factors, bFGF lacks a classic peptide sequence for its secretion, and the mechanism(s) for its(More)
Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2) is an intracellular protein involved in innate immunity and linked to chronic inflammatory diseases in humans. Further characterization of the full spectrum of proteins capable of binding to NOD2 may provide new insights into its normal functioning as well as the mechanisms by which mutated forms cause(More)
The process of inflammation is accompanied by an alteration of leukocyte-endothelial dynamics. Reciprocal changes in the endothelium and the white cell permit the leukocyte to relinquish its normal free-flowing state in order to roll, arrest, and emigrate through the endothelium. Although intravital microscopy is an established method to observe this(More)
PURPOSE Integrins are cell surface proteins that participate in interactions between cells and with extracellular matrix. Binding of integrins to their ligands influences cell activities including proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Expression of integrin subunits from three different subfamilies were examined in human retina. METHODS Integrins(More)
The migration of APCs from sites of infection and their maturation are critical elements in the generation of immune responses. However, the paths by which intraocular Ags migrate to draining lymph nodes are not known because the eye has limited lymphatic vessels. To date, only dendritic cells from the cornea and conjunctiva have been shown to emigrate. We(More)
OBJECTIVE Blau syndrome is an autoinflammatory disease resulting from mutations in the NOD2 gene, wherein granulomatous arthritis, uveitis, and dermatitis develop. The mechanisms by which aberrant NOD2 causes joint inflammation are poorly understood. Indeed, very few studies have addressed the function of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD-2)(More)
BACKGROUND Mast cells (MC) are involved in a wide spectrum of disorders characterized by neovascularization and fibroproliferation. We and others recently reported that human MC are a source of basic fibroblast growth factor (b FGF-2), a potent angiogenic and mitogenic polypeptide, in several disease conditions, such as chronic inflammation, hemangioma, and(More)
We investigated the expression of the functional endotoxin receptor proteins Toll-like receptor-4 and CD14 in human eyes. Toll-like receptor-4 and CD14 proteins were detected by immunohistochemical analysis of sections of whole human eyes embedded in paraffin with monoclonal antibodies against human toll-like receptor-4 (HTA-125), human CD14 (RPA-M1), or as(More)
PURPOSE Retinochoroidal infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is the most common cause of posterior uveitis worldwide. Tachyzoites spread throughout the body through the blood stream and lymphatics, but preferentially encyst in the eye and other parts of the central nervous system (CNS). It is unknown whether T. gondii penetrates the CNS(More)