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Millions of domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have died in Europe, Asia, Australia and New Zealand during the past 17 years following infection by Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). This highly contagious and deadly disease was first identified in China in 1984. Epidemics of RHDV then radiated across Europe until the virus(More)
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) was first recognised in 1984 following the introduction of apparently healthy rabbits into China from Germany. The aetiological agent Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has subsequently killed hundreds of millions of domestic and wild rabbits particularly in Europe, China and Australia. Previously, using phylogenetic(More)
The genes encoding the two major core proteins (VP2 and VP7) of Broadhaven (BRD) virus, a tick-borne orbivirus, were inserted into the genome of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) under the control of copies of the AcNPV polyhedrin promoter to produce two recombinant baculoviruses. Infection of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf) cells with a(More)
The introduction and rapid dispersal of the African flavivirus West Nile virus (WNV) throughout North America, and the high fatality rate due to encephalitis in birds, horses, other wildlife species and humans, has attracted major attention worldwide. Usutu virus, another flavivirus, came to prominence in 2001, when it was identified as the agent(More)
There are two major groups of encephalitic flaviviruses, those that infect and are transmitted by ticks, particularly Ixodes spp. and those that infect and are transmitted by mosquitoes, particularly Culex spp. The tick-borne encephalitic flaviviruses exhibit evolutionary characteristics that are largely determined by the protracted life cycle of the tick,(More)
Horses were immunized by inoculation with a vaccinia construct containing a full-length cDNA corresponding to the L2 gene segment of African horsesickness virus type 4(AHSV-4). All immunized horses developed serum neutralizing antibodies prior to challenge with virulent AHSV-4. No ELISA-reactive antibodies were present prior to challenge. A group of four(More)
1. The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of 14C-meropenem were studied in five volunteers who received 0.5 g (40 microCi) of the radiolabelled drug by i.v. infusion. 2. The maximum concentration of drug in plasma was 27 +/- 2 micrograms/ml (70 microM) corresponding to 98% of plasma radioactivity at the end of a 30 min infusion. The elimination half-life for(More)
Because Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is highly pathogenic for rabbits, farmers illegally introduced it as a bio-control agent onto New Zealand farms in 1997. The virus was dispersed rapidly, initially causing high fatality rates in rabbits. Nevertheless, many survived and these surviving rabbits have been investigated for evidence of infection(More)
The geographical distribution of members of the Great Island (GI) subgroup in the Kemerovo serogroup of orbiviruses extends from the Arctic to the Sub-antarctic. To examine the gene pool size of this group, five topotypes whose origins ranged from Iceland in the northern hemisphere to Macquarie Island in the Southern Ocean were tested for their ability to(More)
Two viruses were isolated from a pool of three female Ixodes uriae ticks found on a dead puffin (Fratercula arctica) on a beach at Arbroath, Scotland. Complement fixation tests showed that one of the viruses was an orbivirus belonging to the Kemerovo serogroup and was related to Cape Wrath virus. Cross-reactions did not occur in neutralisation tests with 4(More)