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The purpose of this perspective article is to describe the use of a physiological profile approach to falls risk assessment and prevention that has been developed by the Falls and Balance Research Group of the Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Sydney, Australia. The profile's use for people with a variety of factors that put them at risk for falls(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the effects of exercise on falls prevention in older people and establish whether particular trial characteristics or components of exercise programs are associated with larger reductions in falls. DESIGN Systematic review with meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials that compared fall rates in older people who undertook(More)
Every effort has been made in preparing this book to provide accurate and up-to-date information which is in accord with accepted standards and practice at the time of publication. Nevertheless, the authors, editors and publisher can make no warranties that the information contained herein is totally free from error, not least because clinical standards are(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the tests most predictive of falls in community-dwelling older people from a range of visual screening tests (high and low contrast visual acuity, edge contrast sensitivity, depth perception, and visual field size). To determine whether one or more of these visual measures, in association with measures of sensation, strength,(More)
BACKGROUND a large proportion of falls in older people occur when walking; however the mechanisms underlying impaired balance during gait are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE to evaluate acceleration patterns at the head and pelvis in young and older subjects when walking on a level and an irregular walking surface, in order to develop an understanding of how(More)
A battery of 13 visual, vestibular, sensorimotor, and balance tests was administered to 95 elderly persons (mean age 82.7 years) to examine the relationships between specific sensorimotor functions and measures of postural stability. When subjects stood on a firm surface, increased body sway was associated with poor tactile sensitivity and poor joint(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate acceleration patterns at the head and pelvis while subjects walked on a level and an irregular walking surface, to develop an understanding of how the postural control system responds to challenging walking conditions. Thirty young, healthy subjects walked on a level corridor and on artificial grass underlain with foam(More)
This systematic review update includes 54 randomised controlled trials and confirms that exercise as a single intervention can prevent falls (pooled rate ratio 0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.91). Meta-regression revealed programs that included balance training, contained a higher dose of exercise and did not include walking training to have the greatest effect on(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the effectiveness of, and explore interactions between, three interventions to prevent falls among older people. DESIGN A randomised controlled trial with a full factorial design. SETTING Urban community in Melbourne, Australia. PARTICIPANTS 1090 aged 70 years and over and living at home. Most were Australian born and rated their(More)
BACKGROUND Sit-to-stand (STS) performance is often used as a measure of lower-limb strength in older people and those with significant weakness. However, the findings of recent studies suggest that performance in this test is also influenced by factors associated with balance and mobility. We conducted a study to determine whether sensorimotor, balance, and(More)