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An operator's sense of remote presence during teleoperation or use of virtual environment interfaces is analyzed as to what characteristics it should have to qualify it as an explanatory scientific construct. But the implicit goal of designing virtual environment interfaces to maximize presence is itself questioned in a second section in which examples of(More)
We examined errors in the localization of nearby virtual objects presented via see-through helmet-mounted displays as a function of viewing conditions and scene content in four experiments using a total of 38 participants. Monocular, biocular, and stereoscopic presentation of the virtual objects, accommodation (required focus), participants' age, and the(More)
System latency (time delay) and its visible consequences are fundamental virtual environment (VE) deficiencies that can hamper user perception and performance. The aim of this research is to quantify the role of VE scene content and resultant relative object motion on perceptual sensitivity to VE latency. Latency detection was examined by presenting(More)
Overall system latency--the elapsed time from input human motion until the immediate consequences of that input are available in the display--is one of the most frequently cited shortcoming of current virtual environment (VE) technology. Given that spatial displacement trackers are employed to monitor head and hand position and orientation in many VE(More)
Position and rate control are the two common manual control modes in teleoperations. Human operator performance using the two modes is evaluated and compared. Simulated three-axis pick-and-place operations are used as the primary task for evaluation. First, ideal position and rate control are compared by considering several factors, such as joystick gain,(More)
As the use of virtual and augmented reality applications becomes more common, the need to fully understand how observers perceive spatial relationships grows more critical. One of the key requirements in engineering a practical virtual or augmented reality system is accurately conveying depth and layout. This requirement has frequently been assessed by(More)
A frequently observed problem in medium-field virtual environments is the underestimation of egocentric depth. This problem has been described numerous times and with widely varying degrees of severity, and although there has been considerable progress made in modifying observer behavior to compensate for these misperceptions, the question of why these(More)
Virtual environment displays arose from vehicle simulation and teleoperations technology of the 1960s. They are interactive, head-referenced computer displays that give users the illusion of displacement to another location. Different terms have been applied to the illusion. Some, like the oxymoronic "artificial reality" and "virtual reality", suggest much(More)
Quantification of perceptual sensitivity to latency in virtual environments (VEs) and elucidation of the mechanism by which latency is perceived is essential for development of countermeasures by VE designers. We test the hypothesis that observers use " image slip " @e., motion of the VE scene caused by system time lags) to detect the consequences of(More)
The experience of motion sickness in a virtual environment may be measured through pre and postexperiment self-reported questionnaires such as the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ). Although research provides converging evidence that users of virtual environments can experience motion sickness, there have been no controlled studies to determine to what(More)