Stephen R. Edwards

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Methane production by anaerobic digestion (AD) of macroalgae (seaweed) is a promising algal bioenergy option. Work presented here is primarily based on the AD of Laminaria hyperborea using batch and continuously stirred tank reactors. Extrapolation of data from batch studies to long term continuous reactors was unreliable. A conservative organic loading(More)
A method was developed for quantification of oxycodone, noroxycodone, and oxymorphone in small volumes (50 microl) of rat plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry using turbo ion-spray. Deuterated (d3) opioid analogues acted as internal standards. Sample preparation involved protein precipitation with(More)
BACKGROUND A ketamine-alfentanil combination has been suggested for total i.v. anaesthesia. We determined the pharmacokinetics of ketamine and alfentanil, alone and together, in three groups of adult male rats, to assess any pharmacokinetic interaction. METHODS Group 1 animals were infused with i.v. ketamine for 5 min; in group 2, constant low plasma(More)
Previously, we reported that oxycodone is a putative kappa-opioid agonist based on studies where intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) pre-treatment of rats with the kappa-selective opioid antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI), abolished i.c.v. oxycodone but not morphine antinociception, whereas pretreatment with i.c.v. naloxonazine (mu-selective antagonist)(More)
1. The pharmacokinetics and oxidative metabolism of oxycodone were investigated following intravenous and oral administration in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. 2. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) was used to quantify plasma concentrations of oxycodone and its oxidative(More)
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are viewed as peripherally acting analgesics; however, evidence is accruing that they also act centrally. To help clarify the regional actions of diclofenac, we studied its plasma and tissue concentrations after subcutaneous injection in a model of acute pain, the rat tail ischaemia-reperfusion acute(More)
A Phase I-II clinical trial of high dose single agent busulfan (16-20 mg/kg) administered over a 4-day period was undertaken. Pharmacokinetic measurements reveal that steady state total plasma busulfan levels between 2 and 10 microM were achieved by the second day and maintained through the remaining treatment period. Urinary excretion of mutagenic activity(More)
1. Antinociception versus serum morphine concentration relationships were defined in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats administered single intravenous (i.v.) bolus doses of morphine, using the hot plate (2.1-14 mg/kg) and tail flick tests (1-8 mg/kg). 2. Serum concentrations of morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), its major metabolite in the rat,(More)
A 100-L microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) was operated for a 12-month period fed on raw domestic wastewater at temperatures ranging from 1°C to 22°C, producing an average of 0.6 L/day of hydrogen. Gas production was continuous though decreased with time. An average 48.7% of the electrical energy input was recovered, with a Coulombic efficiency of 41.2%. COD(More)
The aims of this study are to evaluate whether cytochrome P450 (CYP)2D1/2D2-deficient dark agouti (DA) rats and/or CYP2D1/2D2-replete Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats are suitable preclinical models of the human, with respect to mirroring the very low plasma concentrations of metabolically derived oxymorphone seen in humans following oxycodone administration, and(More)