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Food intake is regulated by the hypothalamus, including the melanocortin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) systems in the arcuate nucleus. The NPY Y2 receptor (Y2R), a putative inhibitory presynaptic receptor, is highly expressed on NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus, which is accessible to peripheral hormones. Peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)), a Y2R agonist, is(More)
The physiological role of glucagon-like peptide-1 7-36 amide (GLP-1 7-36) in man was investigated. GLP-1 7-36-like immunoreactivity was found in the human bowel; its circulating level rose after oral glucose and after a test breakfast. When it was infused into seven volunteers at a rate to mimic its postprandial plasma concentration in the fasting state,(More)
Nutritional deprivation suppresses immune function. The cloning of the obese gene and identification of its protein product leptin has provided fundamental insight into the hypothalamic regulation of body weight. Circulating levels of this adipocyte-derived hormone are proportional to fat mass but maybe lowered rapidly by fasting or increased by(More)
BACKGROUND The gut hormone fragment peptide YY3-36 (PYY) reduces appetite and food intake when infused into subjects of normal weight. In common with the adipocyte hormone leptin, PYY reduces food intake by modulating appetite circuits in the hypothalamus. However, in obesity there is a marked resistance to the action of leptin, which greatly limits its(More)
A radioimmunoassay has been developed for the new intestinal hormonal peptide tyrosine tyrosine [peptide YY (PYY)]. Peptide YY concentrations were measured in separated layers of the human gastrointestinal tract, where PYY was found exclusively in the mucosal epithelium which contained the endocrine cells. Peptide YY was found throughout the small(More)
The sequence of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide (GLP-1) is completely conserved in all mammalian species studied, implying that it plays a critical physiological role. We have shown that GLP-1 and its specific receptors are present in the hypothalamus. No physiological role for central GLP-1 has been established. We report here that(More)
A massive neuronal system was detected by immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay with antibodies to neuropeptide Y, the recently isolated peptide of the pancreatic polypeptide family. Immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers were most prevalent in cortical, limbic, and hypothalamic regions. Neuropeptide Y was extracted in concentrations higher than those of(More)
Ghrelin is a recently identified endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. It is synthesized predominantly in the stomach and found in the circulation of healthy humans. Ghrelin has been shown to promote increased food intake, weight gain and adiposity in rodents. The effect of ghrelin on appetite and food intake in man has not been(More)
Ghrelin, a circulating growth hormone-releasing peptide derived from the stomach, stimulates food intake. The lowest systemically effective orexigenic dose of ghrelin was investigated and the resulting plasma ghrelin concentration was compared with that during fasting. The lowest dose of ghrelin that produced a significant stimulation of feeding after(More)