Stephen Poole

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Inflammation causes the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), leading to the release of prostanoids, which sensitize peripheral nociceptor terminals and produce localized pain hypersensitivity. Peripheral inflammation also generates pain hypersensitivity in neighbouring uninjured tissue (secondary hyperalgesia), because of increased neuronal excitability(More)
1. The hyperalgesic activities in rats of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, IL-8, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and carrageenin were investigated. 2. IL-6 activated the previously delineated IL-1/prostaglandin hyperalgesic pathway but not the IL-8/sympathetic mediated hyperalgesic pathway. 3. TNF alpha and carrageenin activated both pathways.(More)
Mirror-image allodynia is a mysterious phenomenon that occurs in association with many clinical pain syndromes. Allodynia refers to pain in response to light touch/pressure stimuli, which normally are perceived as innocuous. Mirror-image allodynia arises from the healthy body region contralateral to the actual site of trauma/inflammation. Virtually nothing(More)
Neutrophil migration is responsible for tissue damage observed in inflammatory diseases. Neutrophils are also implicated in inflammatory nociception, but mechanisms of their participation have not been elucidated. In the present study, we addressed these mechanisms in the carrageenan-induced mechanical hypernociception, which was determined using a(More)
1. Peripheral inflammation is characterized by heightened pain sensitivity. This hyperalgesia is the consequence of the release of inflammatory mediators, cytokines and growth factors. A key participant is the induction of the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). 2. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) has been shown(More)
1. Peripheral inflammation is associated with the local production of neuroactive inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. These may contribute to inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia by directly or indirectly altering the function or chemical phenotype of responsive primary sensory neurones. 2. To investigate this, inflammation was produced by the(More)
The hypernociceptive effects of cytokines [TNF-alpha, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), and IL-1beta] and their participation in carrageenan (Cg)-induced inflammatory hypernociception in mice were investigated. Nociceptor sensitization (hypernociception) was quantified with an electronic version of the von Frey filament test in WT and TNF receptor type 1(More)
Pain is one of the classical signs of the inflammatory process in which sensitization of the nociceptors is the common denominator. This sensitization causes hyperalgesia or allodynia in humans, phenomena that involve pain perception (emotional component+nociceptive sensation). As this review focuses mainly on animal models, which don't allow discrimination(More)
Spinal proinflammatory cytokines are powerful pain-enhancing signals that contribute to pain following peripheral nerve injury (neuropathic pain). Recently, one proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1, was also implicated in the loss of analgesia upon repeated morphine exposure (tolerance). In contrast to prior literature, we demonstrate that the action of(More)
Maternal infections with bacterial or viral agents during pregnancy are associated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia in the offspring at adulthood although little is known about the mechanism by which maternal infection might affect fetal neurodevelopment. Exposure of pregnant rodents to the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), results(More)