Stephen Patrick Kachur

Learn More
Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) represent the front-line tools for malaria vector control globally, but are optimally effective where the majority of baseline transmission occurs indoors. In the surveyed area of rural southern Tanzania, bed net use steadily increased over the last decade, reducing malaria transmission(More)
BACKGROUND The Roll Back Malaria strategy recommends a combination of interventions for malaria control. Zanzibar implemented artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for uncomplicated malaria in late 2003 and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) from early 2006. ACT is provided free of charge to all malaria patients, while LLINs are distributed free(More)
Artemisinin-containing antimalarial combination therapies are recommended to confront drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Among the questions surrounding whether these complex multidose treatments will be practical is to what extent patients complete the recommended doses. Combination therapy through coadministration of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine(More)
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were developed as an alternative to microscopy for malaria diagnosis. The RDTs detect malaria parasite antigen(s) in whole blood with high sensitivity and specificity. We assessed health worker malaria treatment practices after the introduction of RDTs in peripheral health facilities without microscopy. From December 2007 to(More)
Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) may assist in diagnosis, improve prescribing practices and reduce potential drug resistance development. Without understanding operational issues or acceptance and usage by providers and patients, the costs of these tests may not be justified. To evaluate the impact of RDTs on prescribing behaviours, assess prescribers'(More)
Regulatory infringements are extremely common in low-income countries, especially with respect to retail pharmaceutical sales. There have been few practical suggestions on public policy responses other than stricter regulatory enforcement, which governments are often unable, or unwilling, to do. This paper explores the challenges of regulating retail drug(More)
Accurate and rapid diagnosis of malaria infections is crucial for implementing species-appropriate treatment and saving lives. Molecular diagnostic tools are the most accurate and sensitive method of detecting Plasmodium, differentiating between Plasmodium species, and detecting subclinical infections. Despite available whole-genome sequence data for(More)
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) represent an alternative to microscopy for malaria diagnosis and have shown high sensitivity and specificity in a variety of study settings. Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for quality control of RDTs provide detailed instructions on pre-field testing, but offer little guidance for quality assurance once RDTs(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the variation in malaria parasitaemia, reported fever, care seeking, antimalarials obtained and household expenditure by socio-economic status (SES), and to assess the implications for ensuring equitable and appropriate use of antimalarial combination therapy. METHODS A total of 2,500 households were surveyed in three rural(More)
INTRODUCTION Retail pharmaceutical products are commonly used to treat fever and malaria in sub-Saharan African countries. Small scale studies have suggested that poor quality antimalarials are widespread throughout the region, but nationwide data are not available that could lead to generalizable conclusions about the extent to which poor quality drugs are(More)