Stephen P Yanoviak

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Sodium is an essential nutrient whose deposition in rainfall decreases with distance inland. The herbivores and microbial decomposers that feed on sodium-poor vegetation should be particularly constrained along gradients of decreasing sodium. We studied the use of sucrose and NaCl baits in 17 New World ant communities located 4-2757 km inland. Sodium use(More)
Anopheles darlingi is the most important malaria vector in the Neotropics. An understanding of A. darlingi's population structure and contemporary gene flow patterns is necessary if vector populations are to be successfully controlled. We assessed population genetic structure and levels of differentiation based on 1,376 samples from 31 localities throughout(More)
A biomechanically parsimonious hypothesis for the evolution of flapping flight in terrestrial vertebrates suggests progression within an arboreal context from jumping to directed aerial descent, gliding with control via appendicular motions, and ultimately to powered flight. The more than 30 phylogenetically independent lineages of arboreal vertebrate(More)
Detritus quality and quantity affect macroinvertebrate productivity and distribution in many freshwater ecosystems. This study experimentally investigated the effects of leaf litter from Ceiba pentandra, Dipteryx panamensis, Ficus yoponensis, and Platypodium elegans on macroinvertebrate species composition, richness, and abundance in artificial water-filled(More)
In the lowland moist forest of Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, larvae of four common species of odonates, a mosquito, and a tadpole are the major predators in water-filled tree holes. Mosquito larvae are their most common prey. Holes colonized naturally by predators and prey had lower densities of mosquitoes if odonates were present than if they were(More)
Sodium (Na) is uncommon in plants but essential to the metabolism of plant consumers, both decomposers and herbivores. One consequence, previously unexplored, is that as Na supplies decrease (e.g., from coastal to inland forests), ecosystem carbon should accumulate as detritus. Here, we show that adding NaCl solution to the leaf litter of an inland Amazon(More)
We investigated the direct and indirect effects of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on freshwater container habitats and their larval mosquito occupants. We predicted that a doubling of atmospheric CO(2) would (1) alter the chemical properties of water in this system, (2) slow degradation of leaf litter, and (3) decrease larval growth of Aedes albopictus (Skuse)(More)
Predation and resource availability influence community structure in many aquatic ecosystems. Predators (odonates) and resources (leaf litter) were manipulated to determine their independent effects on macroorganism species richness, abundance, and composition in water-filled tree holes of Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Interactive effects of these factors(More)
Since Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) was isolated in Peru in 1942, >70 isolates have been obtained from mosquitoes, humans, and sylvatic mammals primarily in the Amazon region. To investigate genetic relationships among the Peru VEEV isolates and between the Peru isolates and other VEEV strains, a fragment of the PE2 gene was amplified and(More)
Diverse taxa of animals exhibit remarkable aerial capacities, including jumping, mid-air righting, parachuting, gliding, landing, controlled maneuvers, and flapping flight. The origin of flapping wings in hexapods and in 3 separate lineages of vertebrates (pterosaurs, bats, and birds) greatly facilitated subsequent diversification of lineages, but both the(More)