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In an attempt to understand the reasons behind the high prevalence of tobacco smoking in patients with schizophrenia, the study examined whether specific symptoms of schizophrenia were associated with smoking. Standardized assessments of nicotine dependence (Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence) and psychopathology (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale)(More)
Cravings for alcohol are identified as a trigger for relapse, though laboratory studies of cravings produce mixed results in predicting relapse. The objective of this analysis is to assess the usefulness of craving as a predictor of relapse by assessing 218 adult, alcohol-dependent patients admitted to two separate residential addiction treatment programs.(More)
Genetic research of cocaine abuse has been relatively limited among the African-American population. Since the serotonin transporter (5HTT) may be involved in modulating effects of cocaine, we investigated whether allelic variants of the 5HTT gene may confer susceptibility to cocaine dependence among African-American individuals. One hundred and fifty-six(More)
Dependence on tobacco, like many other drug dependencies, is a complex behavior with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to the variance. The heritability estimates for smoking in twin studies have ranged from 46 to 84%, indicating a substantial genetic component to smoking. Candidate gene studies have detected functional polymorphisms in(More)
Considerable evidence indicates that dopaminergic mechanisms may modulate the central effects of cocaine. We investigated whether basal serum prolactin, a measure of central dopamine activity, differed between cocaine-dependent subjects and controls, and whether prolactin levels among cocaine patients were related to their response to treatment. Eighty-six(More)
Alterations in the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) have been implicated in a variety of psychiatric disorders including cocaine dependence. A polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) appears to influence the expression of 5-HTT in human cell lines. We investigated whether 5-HTTLPR variants were related to differences in(More)
We examined whether excessive alcohol consumption was related to changes in plasma levels of noradrenaline (NA) and whether these changes recover following abstinence. We also explored whether there were differences in NA levels between Type I and Type II alcoholics and controls during active drinking and abstinence. Plasma concentrations of NA were(More)
In the context of an NIAAA/Fetzer Institute-funded study designed to look at the impact of spirituality in an inpatient alcohol treatment, this retrospective case control study investigated whether spiritual growth occurred during an inpatient phase of treatment for alcohol dependence, the degree to which spiritual gains (if noted) would be maintained at(More)
After 27 years methadone maintenance remains perhaps the most controversial form of available opiate addiction treatment. Recognizing that many patients choose to remain in methadone treatment for extended periods of time the authors have wondered whether such patients might actually be harmed by long-term involvement. A review of the records of 3 patients(More)
We investigated whether measures of impulsivity, aggression and sensation seeking differed between cocaine-dependent subjects and controls, and whether these measures were related to treatment-outcome for cocaine patients. Pre-treatment assessments of impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale [BIS]), aggression (Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory [BDHI]) and(More)