Learn More
The use of 96-well microtiter plates and a programmable microplate reader to measure glutathione reductase in an assay based on reduction of 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) by GSH generated from an excess of GSSG is described. Samples are prepared in 96-well plates and absorbance at 415 nm with a reference wavelength of 595 is determined every 30 s for(More)
The N4-hydroxylation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) to its hydroxylamine (SMX-HA) metabolite is the first step in the formation of reactive metabolites responsible for mediating hypersensitivity reactions associated with this compound. In rat hepatic microsomes, the NADPH-dependent oxidation of SMX to SMX-HA was increased 3-fold by pretreatment of rats with(More)
Individual differences in metabolism of the sulfonamides may predispose patients to idiosyncratic reactions. Sulfonamides are metabolized by N-acetylation (mediated by a genetically polymorphic enzyme) and oxidation to potentially toxic metabolites. We examined 6 patients who had severe reactions to sulfonamides and compared them with 20 controls.(More)
Systemic caffeine clearance and urinary metabolite profiles were determined in 15 subjects with diverse exposure histories to cytochrome P-450 inducers (cigarette smoke) and inhibitors (oral contraceptive steroids). A correlation was observed between caffeine clearance and a urinary ratio based on the molar recovery of paraxanthine 7-demethylation products(More)
Potentially serious idiosyncratic reactions associated with sulfamethoxazole (SMX) include systemic hypersensitivity reactions and hepatotoxicity. Covalent binding of SMX to proteins subsequent to its N-hydroxylation to form N4-hydroxysulfamethoxazole (SMX-HA) is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of these reactions. A polyclonal antibody was(More)
We studied the components of the hepatic phenylalanine hydroxylating system in a child with phenylketonuria who showed substantial neurologic impairment despite early dietary control of elevated blood phenylalanine levels. Phenylalanine hydroxylase, dihydropteridine reductase and dihydrofolate reductase activities were normal. In contrast the level of(More)
Arene oxide metabolites of aromatic anticonvulsants (phenytoin, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine) may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypersensitivity reactions. We investigated 53 patients with clinical sensitivity to anticonvulsants by exposing their lymphocytes in vitro to drug metabolites generated by a murine hepatic microsomal system. The diagnosis(More)
Cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6) activity has been shown to be a determinant of both the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tramadol in adults. This study evaluated the association between CYP2D6 activity, as determined by dextromethorphan (DM) urinary metabolite ratio, and tramadol biotransformation in 13 children (7-16 years). CYP2D6 genotype was(More)
Therapy with the aromatic anticonvulsants phenytoin, phenobarbital and carbamazepine has been associated with the occurrence of rare idiosyncratic hypersensitivity reactions. These drugs are thought to be activated to potentially reactive arene oxide (epoxide) metabolites by cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenation, while liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase(More)