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The use of 96-well microtiter plates and a programmable microplate reader to measure glutathione reductase in an assay based on reduction of 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) by GSH generated from an excess of GSSG is described. Samples are prepared in 96-well plates and absorbance at 415 nm with a reference wavelength of 595 is determined every 30 s for(More)
Potentially serious idiosyncratic reactions associated with sulfamethoxazole (SMX) include systemic hypersensitivity reactions and hepatotoxicity. Covalent binding of SMX to proteins subsequent to its N-hydroxylation to form N4-hydroxysulfamethoxazole (SMX-HA) is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of these reactions. A polyclonal antibody was(More)
Individual differences in metabolism of the sulfonamides may predispose patients to idiosyncratic reactions. Sulfonamides are metabolized by N-acetylation (mediated by a genetically polymorphic enzyme) and oxidation to potentially toxic metabolites. We examined 6 patients who had severe reactions to sulfonamides and compared them with 20 controls.(More)
Therapy with the aromatic anticonvulsants phenytoin, phenobarbital and carbamazepine has been associated with the occurrence of rare idiosyncratic hypersensitivity reactions. These drugs are thought to be activated to potentially reactive arene oxide (epoxide) metabolites by cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenation, while liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase(More)
To find out whether arene oxide metabolites of phenytoin and a genetic defect in arene oxide detoxification contribute to susceptibility to phenytoin-induced birth defects, lymphocytes from 24 children exposed to phenytoin throughout gestation and from their families were challenged in a blind protocol with phenytoin metabolites generated by a murine(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular basis for a relative deficiency in the cat of cytosolic arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT), an enzyme family that is important in the metabolism of xenobiotics and that normally consists of at least two related enzymes, NAT1 and NAT2. N-acetyltransferase in feline liver showed high affinity (mean Km(More)
N4-oxidation of sulfonamides has been implicated in the pathogenesis of idiosyncratic reactions to these antimicrobials. In vitro toxicity assays employing mononuclear leukocytes as target cells have shown that the toxicity of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine (SMX-HA) is inhibited by exogenous glutathione, suggesting that conjugation with glutathione is an(More)
It was postulated that thalidomide causes birth defects by being metabolized to a toxic electrophilic intermediate. This hypothesis was tested by using an in vitro assay in which drug toxicity to human lymphocytes was assessed in the presence of a hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing system. Maternal hepatic microsomes from pregnant rabbits mediated the(More)
Variation in the formation and disposition of the hydroxylamine of (SMX-HA) is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of sulfamethoxazole (SMX)-induced idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions. We hypothesized that, in analogy to carcinogenic arylamines, SMX-HA might be further converted to an electrophilic N-acetoxy metabolite which could play a(More)