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Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are usually driven by mutations in KIT or PDGFRA, although 15% of GISTs in adults and >90% in children lack such mutations. The majority of gastric KIT/PDGFRA wild-type GISTs show distinctive morphological and clinical features and loss of expression of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) B. Only a small subset of(More)
Purpose: Chondrosarcomas are notoriously resistant to cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. We sought to identify critical signaling pathways that contribute to their survival and proliferation, and which may provide potential targets for rational therapeutic interventions. Experimental Design: Activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) was surveyed using(More)
A significant number of patients with paragangliomas harbor germline mutations in one of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes (SDHA, B, C, or D). Tumors with mutations in SDH genes can be identified using immunohistochemistry. Loss of SDHB staining is seen in tumors with a mutation in any one of the SDH genes, whereas loss of both SDHB and SDHA(More)
Centrin, a approximately or equal to 20 kDa calcium-binding protein also known as caltractin, is a component of centrosome-associated algal flagellar roots capable of calcium-mediated contraction, and is also found in the centrosomes of vertebrate cells. Our analysis of a centrin gene from a protist, the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi, reveals conserved(More)
We labeled gametes of Chlamydomonas with 10-min pulses of 35SO4(-2) before and at various times after deflagellation, and isolated whole cells and flagella immediately after the pulse. The labeled proteins were separated by one- or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and the amount of isotope incorporated into specific proteins was determined. Individual(More)
Well-differentiated/dedifferentiated liposarcomas (WD/DDLPS) are among the most common subtypes of soft tissue sarcomas. Conventional systemic chemotherapy has limited efficacy and novel therapeutic strategies are needed to achieve better outcomes for patients. The cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) gene is highly amplified in more than 95% of WD/DDLPS. In(More)
Genes that direct the programmed synthesis of flagellar alpha-tubulin during the differentiation of Naegleria gruberi from amebae to flagellates have been cloned, and found to be novel with respect to gene organization, sequence, and conservation. The flagellar alpha-tubulin gene family is represented in the genome by about eight homologous DNA segments(More)
Two calmodulins are synthesized during differentiation of Naegleria gruberi from amoebae to flagellates; one remains in the cell body and the other becomes localized in the flagella. The single, intronless, expressed gene for flagellar calmodulin has been cloned and sequenced. The encoded protein is a typical calmodulin with four putative calcium-binding(More)
A gene that directs the programmed synthesis of flagellar beta-tubulin during the rapid differentiation of Naegleria gruberi from amoebae to flagellates has been cloned and sequenced. The intronless gene is one of 8 to 10 similar but non-identical genes that are dispersed in the genome. beta-Tubulin mRNA homologous to this gene family is expressed(More)
PURPOSE Chondrosarcomas are notoriously resistant to cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. We sought to identify critical signaling pathways that contribute to their survival and proliferation, and which may provide potential targets for rational therapeutic interventions. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) was surveyed using(More)