Stephen P. Matthews

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Microbial products are sensed through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and trigger a program of dendritic cell (DC) maturation that enables DCs to activate T cells. Although an accepted hallmark of this response is eventual down-regulation of DC endocytic capacity, we show that TLR ligands first acutely stimulate antigen macropinocytosis, leading to enhanced(More)
The innate and adaptive immune system utilise endocytic protease activity to promote functional immune responses. Cysteine and aspartic proteases (cathepsins) constitute a subset of endocytic proteases, the immune function of which has been described extensively. Although historically these studies have focused on their role in processes such as antigen(More)
Mammalian asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP) or legumain is a recently discovered lysosomal cysteine protease that specifically cleaves after asparagine residues. How this unusually specific lysosomal protease is itself activated is not fully understood. Using purified recombinant pro-enzyme, we show that activation is autocatalytic, requires sequential(More)
Asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) or legumain is a potentially important Ag-processing enzyme that introduces limited cleavages that trigger unfolding and class II MHC binding of different Ag substrates. AEP is necessary and sufficient for optimal processing and presentation of the tetanus toxin C fragment (TTCF) Ag in vitro, but its importance has not been(More)
Although the endpoint of the class II antigen-processing pathway is well characterized, the processing events that lead to the production of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC)/peptide complexes are not. It is generally assumed that protease action on native antigen substrates leads to unfolding and capture of either long or short peptides.(More)
Dental plaque is rich in anionic groups with a high calcium-binding capacity which may affect mineral dynamics at the tooth surface. The two major calcium-binding sites on Gram-positive cell surfaces are carboxylate groups (in proteins and peptidoglycan cross-links) and phosphate groups (in lipoteichoic and teichoic acid). Equilibrium dialysis was used to(More)
Post-translational protein modifications can be recognized by B and T lymphocytes and can potentially make "self"-proteins appear foreign to the immune system. Such modifications may directly affect major histocompatibility complex-restricted T cell recognition of processed peptides or may perturb the processing events that generate such peptides. Using the(More)
T cells secreting interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 (T helper cell type 2 [Th2] cells) play a detrimental role in a variety of diseases, but specific methods of regulating their activity remain elusive. T1/ST2 is a surface ligand of the IL-1 receptor family, expressed on Th2- but not on interferon (IFN)-gamma-producing Th1 cells. Prior exposure of BALB/c mice to(More)
In a murine model of respiratory syncytial virus disease, prior sensitization to the attachment glycoprotein (G) leads to pulmonary eosinophilia and enhanced illness. Three different approaches were taken to dissect the region of G responsible for enhanced disease and protection against challenge. First, mutant viruses, containing frameshifts that altered(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major viral pathogen of infants and the elderly. Significant morbidity is caused by an overexuberant mixed lung cell infiltrate, which is thought to be driven by chemokines. One of the main chemotactic mediators responsible for the movement of eosinophils is CCL11 (eotaxin). Using a mouse model of eosinophilic(More)