Stephen P Luby

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OBJECTIVE To use new data to make a revised estimate of the global burden of typhoid fever, an accurate understanding of which is necessary to guide public health decisions for disease control and prevention efforts. METHODS Population-based studies using confirmation by blood culture of typhoid fever cases were sought by computer search of the(More)
BACKGROUND Rotavirus vaccine has proved effective for prevention of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants in developed countries, but no efficacy studies have been done in developing countries in Asia. We assessed the clinical efficacy of live oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine for prevention of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants in(More)
Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus whose reservoir host is fruit bats of the genus Pteropus. Occasionally the virus is introduced into human populations and causes severe illness characterized by encephalitis or respiratory disease. The first outbreak of NiV was recognized in Malaysia, but 8 outbreaks have been reported from Bangladesh since 2001. The(More)
Human Nipah outbreaks recur in a specific region and time of year in Bangladesh. Fruit bats are the reservoir host for Nipah virus. We identified 23 introductions of Nipah virus into human populations in central and northwestern Bangladesh from 2001 through 2007. Ten introductions affected multiple persons (median 10). Illness onset occurred from December(More)
An encephalitis outbreak was investigated in Faridpur District, Bangladesh, in April-May 2004 to determine the cause of the outbreak and risk factors for disease. Biologic specimens were tested for Nipah virus. Surfaces were evaluated for Nipah virus contamination by using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Thirty-six cases of Nipah virus illness were(More)
Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) occurs after kala-azar treatment and acts as a durable infection reservoir. On the basis of active case finding among 22,699 respondents, 813 (3.6%) had had kala-azar since 2002, of whom 79 (9.7%) developed PKDL. Eight additional patients with PKDL had no history of kala-azar. Annual kala-azar incidence peaked at(More)
We investigated an outbreak of encephalitis in Tangail District, Bangladesh. We defined case-patients as persons from the outbreak area in whom fever developed with new onset of seizures or altered mental status from December 15, 2004, through January 31, 2005. Twelve persons met the definition; 11 (92%) died. Serum specimens were available from 3; 2 had(More)
BACKGROUND More than 3.5 million children aged less than 5 years die from diarrhoea and acute lower respiratory-tract infection every year. We undertook a randomised controlled trial to assess the effect of handwashing promotion with soap on the incidence of acute respiratory infection, impetigo, and diarrhoea. METHODS In adjoining squatter settlements in(More)
CONTEXT Washing hands with soap prevents diarrhea, but children at the highest risk of death from diarrhea are younger than 1 year, too young to wash their own hands. Previous studies lacked sufficient power to assess the impact of household handwashing on diarrhea in infants. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of promoting household handwashing with soap(More)