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The prime objective for every life form is to deliver its genetic material, intact and unchanged, to the next generation. This must be achieved despite constant assaults by endogenous and environmental agents on the DNA. To counter this threat, life has evolved several systems to detect DNA damage, signal its presence and mediate its repair. Such responses,(More)
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic lesions that are generated by ionizing radiation and various DNA-damaging chemicals. Following DSB formation, cells activate the DNA-damage response (DDR) protein kinases ATM, ATR and DNA-PK (also known as PRKDC). These then trigger histone H2AX (also known as H2AFX) phosphorylation and the accumulation(More)
The process of autophagy, or bulk degradation of cellular proteins through an autophagosomic-lysosomal pathway, is important in normal growth control and may be defective in tumour cells. However, little is known about the genetic mediators of autophagy in mammalian cells or their role in tumour development. The mammalian gene encoding Beclin 1, a novel(More)
Cells respond to DNA double-strand breaks by recruiting factors such as the DNA-damage mediator protein MDC1, the p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1), and the breast cancer susceptibility protein BRCA1 to sites of damaged DNA. Here, we reveal that the ubiquitin ligase RNF8 mediates ubiquitin conjugation and 53BP1 and BRCA1 focal accumulation at sites of DNA(More)
In the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are processed into single-stranded DNA, triggering ATR-dependent checkpoint signalling and DSB repair by homologous recombination. Previous work has implicated the MRE11 complex in such DSB-processing events. Here, we show that the human CtIP (RBBP8) protein confers resistance to(More)
The serine/threonine protein kinase ATM signals to cell cycle and DNA repair components by phosphorylating downstream targets such as p53, CHK2, NBS1, and BRCA1. Mutation of ATM occurs in the human autosomal recessive disorder ataxia-telangiectasia, which is characterized by hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation and a failure of cells to arrest the cell(More)
It is generally thought that the DNA-damage checkpoint kinases, ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), work independently of one another. Here, we show that ATM and the nuclease activity of meiotic recombination 11 (Mre11) are required for the processing of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to generate the replication protein A(More)
Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) are members of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase-related protein kinase (PIKK) family, and are rapidly activated in response to DNA damage. ATM and DNA-PKcs respond mainly to DNA double-strand breaks, whereas ATR is(More)
DNA nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) is a predominant pathway of DNA double-strand break repair in mammalian cells, and defects in it cause radiosensitivity at the cellular and whole-organism levels. Central to NHEJ is the protein complex containing DNA Ligase IV and XRCC4. By searching for additional XRCC4-interacting factors, we identified a previously(More)
MRE11, RAD50 and NBS1 form a highly conserved protein complex (the MRE11 complex) that is involved in the detection, signalling and repair of DNA damage. We identify MDC1 (KIAA0170/NFBD1), a protein that contains a forkhead-associated (FHA) domain and two BRCA1 carboxy-terminal (BRCT) domains, as a binding partner for the MRE11 complex. We show that, in(More)