Stephen P. J. Brooks

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We are exposed to millions of microbial and dietary antigens via the gastrointestinal tract, which likely play a key role in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We differentiated the effects of these two major environmental factors on gut immunity and T1D. Diabetes-prone BioBreeding (BBdp) rats were housed in specific pathogen-free (SPF) or germ-free (GF) conditions and(More)
Mechanistic data to support health claims is often generated using rodent models, and the influence of prebiotic supplementation has largely been evaluated using male rodents. Given that sex-based differences in immune parameters are well recognized and recent evidence suggests differences in microbiota composition between sexes, validation of the(More)
Greenhouse gas emissions represent a major problem associated with manure management in the livestock industry. A prerequisite to mitigate methane emissions occurring during manure storage is a clearer understanding of how the microbial consortia involved in methanogenesis function. Here, we have examined manure stored in outdoor tanks from two different(More)
Fermentation differs between the proximal and distal gut but little is known regarding how the bacterial communities differ or how they are influenced by diet. In order to investigate this, we compared community diversity in the cecum and feces of rats by 16S rRNA gene content and DNA shot gun metagenomics after feeding purified diets containing different(More)
The roles of hormones, second messengers and pH in triggering or potentiating biochemical responses to anaerobiosis were evaluated using in vitro incubations of isolated muscle tissues (foot, radular retractor, ventricle) from the marine whelk Busycon canaliculatum (L.). Incubating tissues in vitro under anoxic conditions stimulated changes in muscle(More)
The mechanisms controlling glycolytic rate were examined in foot muscle of the terrestrial snail Otala lactea (Miiller) (Pulmonata, Helicidae), during short and long periods of estivation and anoxia. Binding associations between glycolytic enzymes and the particulate fraction of the cell were assessed in both states. The percentage of enzyme activity bound(More)
A spatially continuous mathematical model of transport processes, anaerobic digestion and microbial complexity as would be expected in the human colon is presented. The model is a system of first-order partial differential equations with context determined number of dependent variables, and stiff, non-linear source terms. Numerical simulation of the model(More)
—Djungarian ham-sters (Phodopus sungorus) acclimated to a short photoperiod (8:16-h light-dark cycle) display spontaneous daily torpor with ad libitum food availability. The time course of body temperature (T b), metabolic rate, respiratory quotient (RQ), and substrate and enzyme changes was measured during entrance into torpor and in deep torpor. RQ, blood(More)
Spaceflight is associated with several health issues including diminished immune efficiency. Effects of long-term spaceflight on selected immune parameters of wild type (Wt) and transgenic mice over-expressing pleiotrophin under the human bone-specific osteocalcin promoter (PTN-Tg) were examined using the novel Mouse Drawer System (MDS) aboard the(More)
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