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Parental smoking data have been reabstracted from the interview records of the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (deaths from 1971 to 1976). Reported smoking habits for the parents of 2587 children who died with cancer were compared with similar information for the parents of 2587 healthy controls (matched pairs analysis). Maternal daily consumption of(More)
Respired ultrafine particles induce a greater inflammation in rat lungs than fine particles; we have hypothesized that this is due to their comparatively huge number and surface area for the production of free radicals. We tested this hypothesis by studying the effects of fine and ultrafine (uf) carbon black (CB) particles in comparison with quartz on A549(More)
Asbestos fibers cause persistent induction of the oxidative stress sensitive transcription factors nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kappa B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) in mammalian cells. These transcription factors play an important role in the regulation of cellular activity. Lipid peroxidation, mediated by reactive oxygen species, is thought to be a(More)
Ultrafine particles have been shown to induce pro-inflammatory effects both in vivo and in vitro. Increased expression of pro-inflammatory genes probably requires the activation of specific transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) via a number of possible pathways including Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species. The fluorescent dye fura(More)
This review focuses on the potential role that oxidative stress plays in the adverse effects of PM(10). The central hypothesis is that the ability of PM(10) to cause oxidative stress underlies the association between increased exposure to PM(10) and both exacerbations of lung disease and lung cancer. Pulmonary inflammation may also underlie the(More)
In recent years, it has become apparent that minerals can trigger alterations in gene expression by initiating signaling events upstream of gene transactivation. These cascades may be initiated at the cell surface after interaction of minerals with the plasma membrane either through receptorlike mechanisms or integrins. Alternatively, signaling pathways may(More)
OBJECTIVES Molecular epidemiological techniques, capable of detecting damage to DNA, were used to see if such damage occurred in the lymphocytes of a group of workers exposed to chromium. The two aims of this pilot study were to see if these new techniques might make useful biological monitoring tools for workers exposed to chromium and also, to help assess(More)
The mechanism(s) by which cigarette smoke contributes to lung diseases, such as cancer, remains unclear. Recent developments in our knowledge of cell signalling events suggest that cigarette smoke causes oxidative stress and proinflammatory responses in cells of the lung. Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of over 4000 compounds and high levels of(More)
The Comet Assay or single cell gel electrophoresis assay is one of the very widely used assays to microscopically detect DNA damage at the level of a single cell. The determination of damage is carried out either through visual scoring of cells (after classification into different categories on the basis of tail length and shape) or by using different(More)
Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in the Western world and accounts for up to a third of all deaths worldwide. Cardiovascular disease is multifactorial and involves complex interplay between lifestyle (diet, smoking, exercise, ethanol consumption) and fixed (genotype, age, menopausal status, gender) causative factors. The(More)