Stephen P. Burke

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Glutamate and/or aspartate is the probable transmitter released from synaptic terminals of the CA3-derived Schaffer collateral, commissural, and ipsilateral associational fibers in area CA1 of the rat hippocampal formation. Slices of the CA1 area were employed to test the effects of adenosine- and gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA)-related compounds on the release(More)
The neurofibromatosis 2 tumor suppressor protein schwannomin/merlin is commonly mutated in schwannomas and meningiomas. Schwannomin, a member of the 4.1 family of proteins, which are known to link the cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane, has little known function other than its ability to suppress tumor growth. Using yeast two-hybrid interaction cloning, we(More)
The neurofibromatosis 2 tumor suppressor protein, merlin or schwannomin, functions as a negative growth regulator; however, its mechanism of action is not known. In an effort to determine how merlin regulates cell growth, we analyzed a recently identified novel merlin interactor, hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS). We(More)
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant tumor predisposition syndrome characterized by benign proliferations (hamartomas). In the brain, individuals with TSC develop autism, mental retardation and seizures associated with focal cortical dysplasias, subependymal nodules, and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs). We hypothesize that(More)
The Cdc25 cell cycle regulator is a member of the dual-specificity class of protein-tyrosine phosphatases that hydrolyze phosphotyrosine- and phosphothreonine-containing substrates. To study the mechanism of Cdc25B, we have overexpressed and purified the catalytic domain of human Cdc25B (Xu, X., and Burke, S. P. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 5118-5124). In the(More)
Although early studies of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) suggested that cIAP1 directly binds and inhibits caspases similarly to X-linked IAP (XIAP), a recent one found that micromolar concentrations of cIAP1 only weakly inhibit caspase-3, -7, or -9. Here, we show that cIAP1 specifically and cooperatively blocks the cytochrome c-dependent apoptosome(More)
Human Cdc25 proteins are dual specific protein phosphatases that play important roles in cell cycle regulation. In this study, the catalytic mechanism and substrate binding specificity of human Cdc25A and -B proteins were investigated by site-directed and deletion mutagenesis methods. Mutations of the cysteine or the arginine residues in the active site(More)
The four residues at the amino-terminus of mature Smac/DIABLO are an IAP binding motif (IBM). Upon exit from mitochondria, mature Smac interacts with inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), abrogating caspase inhibition. We used the ubiquitin fusion model to express mature Smac in the cytosol. Transiently expressed mature Smac56-239 (called Smac56) and(More)
Excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS can be modulated by endogenous substances and metabolic states that alter release of the transmitter, usually glutamate and/or aspartate. To explore this issue, we have studied the release of endogenous glutamate and aspartate from synaptic terminals of the CA3-derived Schaffer collateral, commissural and(More)
The effects of glucose deficiency on (1) the K+-evoked release of glutamate and aspartate and (2) excitatory synaptic transmission were studied in the Schaffer collateral-commissural-ipsilateral associational (SCCIA) projection to area CA1 of the rat hippocampal formation in vitro. Compared with 1 or 10 mM glucose, superfusion of CA1 slices with 0.1 mM(More)