Stephen P. Bottomley

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The aggregation of ataxin-3 is associated with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, which is characterized by the formation of intraneuronal aggregates. However, the mechanism of aggregation is currently not well understood. Ataxin-3 consists of a folded Josephin domain followed by two ubiquitin-interacting motifs and a C-terminal polyglutamine tract, which in(More)
Polyglutamine proteins that cause neurodegenerative disease are known to form proteinaceous aggregates, such as nuclear inclusions, in the neurons of affected patients. Although polyglutamine proteins have been shown to form fibrillar aggregates in a variety of contexts, the mechanisms underlying the aberrant conformational changes and aggregation are still(More)
BACKGROUND In the past few years, both automated and manual high-throughput protein expression and purification has become an accessible means to rapidly screen and produce soluble proteins for structural and functional studies. However, many of the commercial vectors encoding different solubility tags require different cloning and purification steps for(More)
Dopamine (DA) and alpha-synuclein (alpha-SN) are two key molecules associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). We have identified a novel action of DA in the initial phase of alpha-SN aggregation and demonstrate that DA induces alpha-SN to form soluble, SDS-resistant oligomers. The DA:alpha-SN oligomeric species are not amyloidogenic as they do not react with(More)
The polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases consist of nine neurodegenerative diseases in which a polyQ tract expansion leads to protein misfolding and subsequent aggregation. Even when the causative proteins have the same length polyQ tract, there are differences in the severity and age of disease onset which implicate the polyQ flanking sequences as modulators of(More)
The polyglutamine diseases are caused in part by a gain-of-function mechanism of neuronal toxicity involving protein conformational changes that result in the formation and deposition of β-sheet rich aggregates. Recent evidence suggests that the misfolding mechanism is context-dependent, and that properties of the host protein, including the domain(More)
Many bacterial pathogens produce extracellular proteases that degrade the extracellular matrix of the host and therefore are involved in disease pathogenesis. Dichelobacter nodosus is the causative agent of ovine footrot, a highly contagious disease that is characterized by the separation of the hoof from the underlying tissue. D. nodosus secretes three(More)
We have developed a new database that collects all protein folding data into a single, easily accessible public resource. The Protein Folding Database (PFD) contains annotated structural, methodological, kinetic and thermodynamic data for more than 50 proteins, from 39 families. A user-friendly web interface has been developed that allows powerful(More)
HLA class I polymorphism creates diversity in epitope specificity and T cell repertoire. We show that HLA polymorphism also controls the choice of Ag presentation pathway. A single amino acid polymorphism that distinguishes HLA-B*4402 (Asp116) from B*4405 (Tyr116) permits B*4405 to constitutively acquire peptides without any detectable incorporation into(More)
A large proportion of proteins expressed in Escherichia coli form inclusion bodies and thus require renaturation to attain a functional conformation for analysis. In this process, identifying and optimizing the refolding conditions and methodology is often rate limiting. In order to address this problem, we have developed REFOLD, a web-accessible relational(More)