Stephen Newstead

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In studies of the belief bias effect in syllogistic reasoning, an interaction between logical validity and the believability of the conclusion has been found; in essence, logic has a larger effect on unbelievable than on believable conclusions. Two main explanations have been proposed for this finding. The selective scrutiny account claims that people focus(More)
Three studies are reported, which examined individual differences in deductive reasoning as a function of intellectual ability and thinking style. Intellectual ability was a good predictor of logical performance on syllogisms, especially where there was a conflict between logic and believability. However, in the first two experiments there was no link(More)
There is much empirical evidence showing that factors other than the relative positions of objects in Euclidean space are important in the comprehension of a wide range of spatial prepositions in English and other languages. We first the overview the functional geometric framework (Coventry & Garrod, 2004) which puts “what” and “where” information together(More)
According to dual-process accounts of thinking, belief-based responses on reasoning tasks are generated as default but can be intervened upon in favor of logical responding, given sufficient time, effort, or cognitive resource. In this article, we present the results of 5 experiments in which participants were instructed to evaluate the conclusions of(More)
Four experiments are reported which attempt to externalize subjects' mental representation of conditional sentences, using novel research methods. In Experiment 1, subjects were shown arrays of coloured shapes and asked to rate the degree to which they appeared to be true of conditional statements such as "If the figure is green then it is a triangle". The(More)
The literature on vague quantifiers in English (words like “some”, “many”, etc.) is replete with demonstrations of context effects. Yet little attention has been paid to the issue of where such effects come from. We explore the possibility that such they emanate from a visual attentional bottleneck which limits the accuracy of judgments of number in visual(More)
Two studies are reported which investigated how people interpret quantifiers of amount such as are commonly used in questionnaires and rating scales. The results indicated that the interpretation of certain quantifiers and rating scales. The results indicated that the interpretation of certain quantifiers varied depending on the context in which they(More)
Four experiments are reported that tested the claim, drawn from mental models theory, that reasoners attempt to construct alternative representations of problems that might falsify preliminary conclusions they have drawn. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to indicate which alternative conclusion(s) they had considered in a syllogistic reasoning task.(More)
A study is reported which examined the reliability and validity of two measures of individual differences in learning, a short form of the Approaches to Studying Inventory (Entwistle and Ramsden, 1983) and the Learning Style Inventory (Kolb, 1976). Both of these are short and easy to administer, making them attractive for use in the classroom. The(More)