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Clinical trials of vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis are well under way and results are starting to come in. Some of these results are not so encouraging, as exemplified by the latest Aeras-422 and MVA85A trials. Other than empirically determining whether a vaccine reduces the number of cases of active tuberculosis, which is a daunting prospect(More)
Despite the introduction almost a century ago of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG), an attenuated form of M. bovis that is used as a vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis remains a global health threat and kills more than 1.5 million people each year. This is mostly because BCG fails to prevent pulmonary disease--the contagious form of(More)
The immune system can recognize virtually any antigen, yet T cell responses against several pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are restricted to a limited number of immunodominant epitopes. The host factors that affect immunodominance are incompletely understood. Whether immunodominant epitopes elicit protective CD8+ T cell responses or(More)
T cell vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and other pathogens are based on the principle that memory T cells rapidly generate effector responses upon challenge, leading to pathogen clearance. Despite eliciting a robust memory CD8+ T cell response to the immunodominant Mtb antigen TB10.4 (EsxH), we find the increased frequency of(More)
We report a case of recurrent disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (DMAC) disease with anti-gamma interferon autoantibodies. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case caused by reinfection with a separate isolate of M. avium. DMAC disease activity was monitored using serum IgG antibody titers against lipid antigens extracted from a MAC strain.
The differentiation of effector CD8(+) T cells is a dynamically regulated process that varies during different infections and is influenced by the inflammatory milieu of the host. In this study, we define three signals regulating CD8(+) T cell responses during tuberculosis by focusing on cytokines known to affect disease outcome: IL-12, type I IFN, and(More)
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease is prevalent in middle-aged to elderly women with a thin body habitus. By comparing the rate of serologically diagnosed asymptomatic MAC infection and body mass index among 1033 healthy subjects, we find that middle-aged to elderly women became infected with MAC, regardless of their body habitus.
The immune system can recognize virtually any antigen, yet T cell responses against several pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are restricted to a limited number of immunodominant epitopes. The host factors that affect immunodominance are incompletely understood. Whether immunodominant epitopes elicit protective CD8+ T cell responses or(More)
IL-21 is produced predominantly by activated CD4+ T cells and has pleiotropic effects on immunity via the IL-21 receptor (IL-21R), a member of the common gamma chain (γc) cytokine receptor family. We show that IL-21 signaling plays a crucial role in T cell responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by augmenting CD8+ T cell priming, promoting T(More)
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