Stephen M Roth

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BACKGROUND Because of the scarcity of data available from direct comparisons of age and gender groups using the same relative training stimulus, it is unknown whether older individuals can increase their muscle mass as much as young individuals and whether women can increase as much as men in response to strength training (ST). In addition, little is known(More)
This update of the human gene map for physical performance and health-related fitness phenotypes covers the research advances reported in 2006 and 2007. The genes and markers with evidence of association or linkage with a performance or a fitness phenotype in sedentary or active people, in responses to acute exercise, or for training-induced adaptations are(More)
Myostatin is a recently identified member of the transforming growth factor-beta family of regulatory factors, also known as growth and differentiation factor 8 (GDF8). The nucleotide sequence of human myostatin was determined in 40 individuals. The invariant promoter contains a consensus MyoD binding site, and the coding sequence contains five missense(More)
The R577X polymorphism in the alpha-actinin-3 encoding gene (ACTN3) has been associated with elite athletic performance, and recently with differences in isometric and dynamic muscle strength and power in the general population. In this study we sought to determine the association of ACTN3 R577X genotype with muscle strength and mass phenotypes in men and(More)
BACKGROUND The alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) R577X polymorphism has been associated with muscle power performance in cross-sectional studies. METHODS We examined baseline knee extensor concentric peak power (PP) and PP change with approximately 10 weeks of unilateral knee extensor strength training (ST) using air-powered resistance machines in 71 older men (65(More)
Strength training (ST) is considered a promising intervention for reversing the loss of muscle function and the deterioration of muscle structure that is associated with advanced age. This reversal is thought to result in improvements in functional abilities and health status in the elderly by increasing muscle mass, strength and power and by increasing(More)
This study examined changes in myostatin gene expression in response to strength training (ST). Fifteen young and older men (n = 7) and women (n = 8) completed a 9-week heavy-resistance unilateral knee extension ST program. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the dominant vastus lateralis before and after ST. In addition to myostatin mRNA levels, muscle(More)
Previous reports have shown a lower proportion of the ACTN3 X/X genotype (R577X nonsense polymorphism) in sprint-related athletes compared to the general population, possibly attributed to impairment of muscle function related to α-actinin-3 deficiency. In the present study, we examined the frequency of the X/X genotype in both Black and White elite-level(More)
Performance on the Sternberg working memory task, and MEG cortical response on a variation of the Sternberg task were examined in middle-aged carriers and non-carriers of the APOE epsilon4 allele. Physical activity was also assessed to examine whether exercise level modifies the relationship between APOE genotype and neurocognitive function. Regression(More)
The relationship between ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) genotype and muscle strength was examined in 494 healthy men and women across the entire adult age span (20-90 yr). Concentric (Con) and eccentric (Ecc) peak torque were assessed using a Kin-Com isokinetic dynamometer for the knee extensors (KE) and knee flexors (KF) at slow (0.52 rad/s) and faster(More)