Stephen M. Rao

Learn More
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Nearly half of all patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis will develop cognitive dysfunction, a symptom associated with significant decline in activities of daily living. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent literature investigating issues related to cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS Recent(More)
Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), yet patients seen in MS clinics and neurologic practices are not routinely assessed neuropsychologically. In part, poor utilization of NP services may be attributed to a lack of consensus among neuropsychologists regarding the optimal approach for evaluating MS patients. An expert panel composed of(More)
Our perception of time depends on multiple psychological processes that allow us to anticipate events. In this study, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to differentiate neural systems involved in formulating representations of time from processes associated with making decisions about their duration. A time perception task(More)
The hippocampus is critical for encoding and retrieving semantic and episodic memories. Animal studies indicate that the hippocampus is also required for relational learning tasks. A prototypical relational learning task, and the one investigated in this experiment, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, is the transitive inference (TI)(More)
Studies in brain damaged patients conclude that the left hemisphere is dominant for controlling heterogeneous sequences performed by either hand, presumably due to the cognitive resources involved in planning complex sequential movements. To determine if this lateralized effect is due to asymmetries in primary sensorimotor or association cortex, whole-brain(More)
A central role of the hippocampus is to consolidate conscious forms of learning and memory, while performance on implicit tasks appears to depend upon other structures. Recently, considerable debate has emerged about whether hippocampal-dependent tasks necessarily entail task awareness. In the contextual cueing task, repetition facilitation is implicit, but(More)
  • S M Rao
  • Journal of clinical and experimental…
  • 1986
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a relatively common, chronic progressive neurological illness affecting individuals primarily in the third and fourth decades of life. Autopsy studies indicate that the disease preferentially attacks white matter throughout the CNS, including the cerebral hemispheres. This article reviews the current state of knowledge regarding(More)
The Stroop interference effect, caused by difficulty inhibiting overlearned word reading, is often more pronounced in older adults. This has been proposed to be due to declines in inhibitory control and frontal lobe functions with aging. Initial neuroimaging studies of inhibitory control show that older adults have enhanced activation in multiple frontal(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Functional MR imaging (fMRI) has been used to probe basal ganglia function in people with presymptomatic Huntington's disease (pre-HD). A previous fMRI study in healthy individuals demonstrated activation of the basal ganglia during a time-discrimination task. The current study was designed to examine the relative sensitivity of fMRI(More)
Neuropsychological and neuroimaging changes have been observed in individuals with the Huntington's disease (HD) gene expansion prior to the onset of manifest HD. This cross-sectional fMRI study of preclinical HD (pre-HD) individuals was conducted to determine if functional brain changes precede deficits in behavioral performance and striatal atrophy.(More)