Stephen M. Kralovic

Learn More
Phaeohyphomycosis due to Dactylaria (Ochroconis) spp. is a rare infection of man. It was first reported in 1986. All patients have had significant immunosuppression. To our knowledge, this is the second case of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava in a liver transplant patient and it developed even though he had been receiving(More)
Hepatitis C is a major public health and financial issue in health care. On March 17, 1999, a Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Hepatitis C Surveillance Day (HepCSD) was undertaken as an administrative tool to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C antibody positivity in the population served by the VHA for purposes of resource needs allocation and cost(More)
The Veterans Affairs methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Prevention Initiative was implemented in its 133 long-term care facilities in January 2009. Between July 2009 and December 2012, there were ~12.9 million resident-days in these facilities nationwide. During this period, the mean quarterly MRSA admission prevalence increased from 23.3%(More)
A national survey was sent to all appropriate Veterans Health Administration (VA) medical facilities asking about the ability to test for Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (SARV) (MICs >4 microg/mL). For those with this ability, a request was made for the number of patients having SARV isolated during a 1-year period. Nineteen(More)
BACKGROUND Anal carcinoma is increasing in high-risk populations. Dysplasia is often distributed throughout the anal mucosa, and focal ablative techniques have high rates of recurrence. METHODS With the goal of eradicating dysplasia from the entire anal mucosa, we conducted a phase I dose-ranging study to determine the safety and tolerability of(More)
OBJECTIVE An initiative was implemented in July 2012 to decrease Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) in Veterans Affairs (VA) acute care medical centers nationwide. This is a report of national baseline CDI data collected from the 21 months before implementation of the initiative. METHODS Personnel at each of 132 data-reporting sites entered monthly(More)
The Department of Veterans Affairs operates a large, centrally administered health care system consisting of 173 hospitals and 4 free standing outpatient clinics nationwide with approximately 945,115 hospital discharges, 24.2 million outpatient visits, and 2.86 million persons served annually over the time frame of the review. The purpose of the study was(More)
All cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) testing performed at our institution between 1989 and 1994 was reviewed for utility of routinely testing of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) for this antigen. Forty-two of 1,506 BAL specimens were positive. Seventeen of these were felt to represent false positives (sensitivity, 71%; positive predictive value, 0.59). The(More)
BACKGROUND Recurrent Clostridium difficile (CDI) infection is a growing concern; however, there are little data on impact of recurrent CDI on those with spinal cord injury and disorder (SCI/D). Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with recurrence of CDI among Veterans with SCI/D. METHODS This was a retrospective(More)