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This paper reexamines the commonly observed inverse relationship between perceived risk and perceived bene®t. We propose that this relationship occurs because people rely on a€ect when judging the risk and bene®t of speci®c hazards. Evidence supporting this proposal is obtained in two experimental studies. Study 1 investigated the inverse relationship(More)
Experiments were performed in current-clamped and voltage-clamped after-hyperpolarizing (AH) neurones of the guinea-pig myenteric plexus to examine the properties of the potassium conductance (gK, Ca) underlying the slow calcium-activated after-hyperpolarization (VK, Ca). The action potential plateau lengthened by the addition of tetraethylammonium chloride(More)
Although recent evidence demonstrates considerable neuroplasticity in the respiratory control system, a comprehensive conceptual framework is lacking. Our goals in this review are to define plasticity (and related neural properties) as it pertains to respiratory control and to discuss potential sites, mechanisms, and known categories of respiratory(More)
1. An in vitro brain stem slice preparation from adult guinea pigs was used to determine the properties of neurons located in the ventral part of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), an area associated with the dorsal respiratory group. Based upon their morphology and their repetitive firing properties, three classes of ventral NTS neurons, termed types I,(More)
1. The purpose of this study was to determine the electrophysiological properties of neurons within the region of the nucleus ambiguus (NA), an area that contains the ventral respiratory group. By the use of an in vitro brain stem slice preparation, intracellular recordings from neurons in this region (to be referred to as NA neurons, n = 235) revealed the(More)
1. Intracellular recordings were made from neurones in the myenteric plexus of the ileum isolated from adult guinea-pigs.2. Three synaptic potentials were evoked in different myenteric neurones by focal stimulation of the ganglion surface at a distance of up to 100 mum from the cell body from which the recording was made. These were the fast cholinergic(More)
The active and passive electrical properties of the after-hyperpolarizing (AH) cell of the guinea-pig myenteric plexus were analysed using a single-electrode voltage or current clamp. Action potentials were compared under normal conditions, in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and in the presence of both TTX and tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA). Calcium(More)
For ectothermic vertebrates, such as reptiles, the effects of opioid receptor subtype activation on breathing are poorly understood. On the basis of previous studies on mammals and lampreys, we hypothesized that mu- and delta-opioid receptor (MOR and DOR, respectively) activation would cause respiratory depression, whereas kappa-opioid receptor (KOR)(More)