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Demands for accountability have seen the implementation of large scale testing programs in Australia and internationally. There is, however, a growing body of evidence to show that externally imposed testing programs do not have a sustained impact on student achievement. It has been argued that teacher assessment is more effective in raising student(More)
The purpose of this paper is to explain the role of the unit implicit in the dichotomous Rasch model in determining the multiplicative factor of separation between measurements in a specified frame of reference. The explanation is provided at two complementary levels: first, in terms of the algebra of the model in which the role of an implicit,(More)
During the course of history, the natural sciences have seen the development of increasingly convenient short-hand symbolic devices for denoting physical quantities. These devices ultimately took the form of physical algebra. However, the convenience of algebra arguably came at a cost - a loss of the clarity of direct insights by Euclid, Galileo, and Newton(More)
Standards-referenced educational reform has increased the prevalence of standardized testing; however, whether these tests accurately measure students' competencies has been questioned. This may be due to domain-specific assessments placing a differing domain-general cognitive load on test-takers. To investigate this possibility, functional magnetic(More)
First, we question whether Cramer et al.'s proposed network model can provide a viable scientific foundation for investigating comorbidity without invoking latent variables in some form. Second, the authors' claim that the network perspective is radically different from a latent variable perspective rests upon an undemonstrated premise. Without being(More)
The most common approach to modelling item discrimination and guessing for multiple-choice questions is the three parameter logistic (3PL) model. However, proponents of Rasch models generally avoid using the 3PL model because to model guessing entails sacrificing the distinctive property and advantages of Rasch models. One approach to dealing with guessing(More)
The aim is to show that it is possible to parameterize discrimination for sets of items, rather than individual items, without destroying conditions for sufficiency in a form of the Rasch model. The form of the model is obtained by formalizing the relationship between discrimination and the unit of a metric. The raw score vector across item sets is the(More)
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