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There are currently no effective therapies for metastatic melanoma and targeted immunotherapy results in the remission of only a very small percentage of tumors. In this study, we show that the noncanonical Wnt ligand, Wnt5A, can increase melanoma metastasis in vivo while down-regulating the expression of tumor-associated antigens important in eliciting CTL(More)
Measurement of gene-expression profiles using microarray technology is becoming increasingly popular among the biomedical research community. Although there has been great progress in this field, investigators are still confronted with a difficult question after completing their experiments: how to validate the large data sets that are generated? This(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin C at high concentrations is toxic to cancer cells in vitro. Early clinical studies of vitamin C in patients with terminal cancer suggested clinical benefit, but 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled trials showed none. However, these studies used different routes of administration. OBJECTIVE To determine whether plasma vitamin C(More)
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) continues to suffer from variable consistency, poor reproducibility, quality assurance disparities, and the lack of standardization resulting in poor concordance, validation, and verification. This document lists the recommendations made by the Ad-Hoc Committee on Immunohistochemistry Standardization to address these deficiencies.(More)
The expression of the HER-2/neu (HER2) gene, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family, has been shown to be a valuable prognostic indicator for breast cancer. However, interobserver variability has been reported in the evaluation of HER2 with immunohistochemistry. It has been suggested that automated computer-based evaluation can provide a(More)
PURPOSE Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an aggressive tumor with poor prognosis. Understanding molecular changes in ESCC will enable identification of molecular subtypes and provide potential targets for early detection and therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We followed up a previous array study with additional discovery and confirmatory studies in(More)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the coexpression patterns of hormonal markers in breast cancer tissue and their relationship with pathologic characteristics and epidemiologic risk factors. We evaluated the expression of 17 markers by immunohistochemistry in 842 invasive breast carcinomas collected in a population-based case-control study(More)
A twofold increase in BRCA mutation related prostate cancer among Ashkenazi Israelis is not associated with distinctive histopathology T he magnitude of the risk of prostate cancer among Ashkenazi Jewish carriers of the common mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, the so-called Ashkenazi BRCA founder mutations (BRCA1 185delAG and 5382insC, and BRCA2(More)
Melanoma represents a significant malignancy in humans and dogs. Different from genetically engineered models, sporadic canine melanocytic neoplasms share several characteristics with human disease that could make dogs a more relevant preclinical model. Canine melanomas rarely arise in sun-exposed sites. Most occur in the oral cavity, with a subset having(More)
Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), induced by tumor hypoxia, regulates tumor cell metabolism and metastasis by up-regulation of c-Met, carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). The prognostic significance of hypoxia and metabolic markers is not clearly defined in cervical cancer. Here, we have examined the primary players in the(More)