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The factors that control the spatial tuning of hippocampal neurons are incompletely understood, and there is no generally agreed upon definition of what constitutes a "place field". One factor that must be considered is the phenomenon of "phase precession". As a rat passes through the place field of a particular hippocampal neuron, its spikes shift to(More)
Although hippocampal interneurons typically do not show discrete regions of elevated firing in an environment, such as seen in pyramidal cell place fields, they do exhibit significant spatial modulation (McNaughton et al., 1983a). Strong monosynaptic coupling between pyramidal neurons and nearby interneurons in the CA1 stratum pyramidale has been strongly(More)
Goal-directed behaviors require the consideration and expenditure of physical effort. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) appears to play an important role in evaluating effort and reward and in organizing goal-directed actions. Despite agreement regarding the involvement of the ACC in these processes, the way in which effort-, reward-, and motor-related(More)
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a critical role in the organization of goal-directed behaviors and in the learning of reinforcement contingencies. Given these observations, it was hypothesized that mPFC neurons may store associations between sequentially paired stimuli when both stimuli contribute to the prediction of reward. To test this(More)
Memory trace reactivation in hippocampal ensembles during sleep has been suggested as a coordinating mechanism for consolidation of new memories. Here we propose a simple statistical scheme allowing analysis of the reactivation of firing rate modulations, with a well-defined null hypothesis. This method allowed reliable detection of ensemble reactivation(More)
Self-motion information influences spatially-specific firing patterns exhibited by hippocampal neurons. Moreover, these firing patterns can repeat across similar subsegments of an environment, provided that there is similarity of path shape and head orientations across subsegments. The influence of self-motion variables on repeating fields remains to be(More)
This study assesses the degree of bone mineral loss in women with active DSM IIIR bulimia nervosa. The subjects in this study were 20 GP-referred female patients of normal weight who met criteria for bulimia nervosa and 16 healthy age, sex and weight matched controls. Dual energy X-ray densitometry of lumbar L1-L4 vertebrae was performed on all subjects.(More)
The physical effort required to seek out and extract a resource is an important consideration for a foraging animal. A second consideration is the variability or risk associated with resource delivery. An intriguing observation from ethological studies is that animals shift their preference from stable to variable food sources under conditions of increased(More)
The mPFC plays a critical role in the organization of goal directed behaviors and in the learning of reinforcement contingencies. Given these observations, it was hypothesized that mPFC neurons may store associations between sequentially paired stimuli when both stimuli contribute to the prediction of reward. To test this hypothesis, neural ensemble spiking(More)