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Elevated plasma levels of the sulfur-containing amino acid homocysteine increase the risk for atherosclerosis, stroke, and possibly Alzheimer's disease, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We now report that homocysteine induces apoptosis in rat hippocampal neurons. DNA strand breaks and associated activation of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifaceted organelle that regulates protein synthesis and trafficking, cellular responses to stress, and intracellular Ca2+ levels. In neurons, it is distributed between the cellular compartments that regulate plasticity and survival, which include axons, dendrites, growth cones and synaptic terminals. Intriguing(More)
Many cases of early-onset inherited Alzheimer's disease (AD) are caused by mutations in the presenilin-1 (PS1) gene. PS1 mutations may perturb cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and thereby render neurons vulnerable to excitotoxicity and apoptosis. We now report that PC12 cells expressing PS1 mutations and primary hippocampal neurons from PS1 mutant knockin mice(More)
Concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were measured in subsamples taken from different anatomical locations of blubber and liver of three apparently healthy harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) incidentally caught in a gill-net fishery along the northwest Atlantic coast; selected elements (e.g., mercury)(More)
A rapid method has been developed to screen for planar chlorobiphenyl (CB) congeners, as well as certain other CBs and DDTs, in tissue samples from marine biota. The analytes were extracted from tissue matrices with 1:1 hexane/pentane (v/v) and interfering compounds were separated from the CBs on a gravity-flow column packed with acidic, basic and neutral(More)
The concentrations of selected chlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g. PCBs, DDTs, DDEs, chlordanes) and essential (e.g. zinc, selenium, copper) and toxic (e.g. mercury, lead, arsenic) elements were measured in tissues and stomach contents from 22 gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) stranded between 1988 and 1991 at sites from the relatively pristine areas of Kodiak(More)
High prevalences of idiopathic liver lesions, including 7.5% hepatic neoplasms (e.g., hepatocellular and cholangiocellular carcinomas) and 16.7% foci of cellular alteration (putative preneoplastic hepatic lesions), were found in English sole (Parophrys vetulus) from waters near Mukilteo, a small community on Puget Sound in Washington State. Sediments from(More)
High prevalences of idiopathic hepatic lesions, including neoplasms (e.g., hepatocellular carcinomas, cholangiocellular carcinomas) (27%, 20 of 75 fish) and foci of cellular alteration (putative 'preneoplastic' lesions) (44%, 33 of 75 fish), were found in English sole (Parophrys vetulus) exposed to creosote-contaminated sediments in Eagle Harbor, Puget(More)
Global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors have heightened the need to rapidly characterize ecological changes in marine benthic communities across large scales. Digital photography enables rapid collection of survey images to meet this need, but the subsequent image annotation is typically a time consuming, manual task. We investigated the(More)
Neurons are an unusual type of cell in that they send processes (axons and dendrites) over great distances. This elaborate morphology, together with their excitability, places neurons at risk for multiple insults. Recent studies have demonstrated that apoptotic and excitotoxic mechanisms not only contribute to neuronal death, but also to synaptic(More)