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Although AKT1 (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue 1) kinase is a central member of possibly the most frequently activated proliferation and survival pathway in cancer, mutation of AKT1 has not been widely reported. Here we report the identification of a somatic mutation in human breast, colorectal and ovarian cancers that results in a glutamic(More)
Mutations in the obese gene (OB) or in the gene encoding the OB receptor(OB-R) result in obesity, infertility and diabetes in a variety of mouse phenotypes. The demonstration that OB protein (also known as leptin) can normalize body weight in ob/ob mice has generated enormous interest. Most human obesity does not appear to result from a mutant form of(More)
A method has been developed to allow the direct coupling of the cytotoxic vinca alkaloid 4-desacetylvinblastine-3-carbohydrazide (DAVLB hydrazide) to a variety of murine monoclonal antibodies directed against human solid tumors. Periodate oxidation of carbohydrate residues on the antibodies, followed by reaction with DAVLB hydrazide in aqueous acid affords,(More)
The glucose-sensing enzyme glucokinase (GK) plays a key role in glucose metabolism. We report here the effects of a novel glucokinase activator, LY2121260. The activator enhanced GK activity via binding to the allosteric site located in the hinge region of the enzyme. LY2121260 stimulated insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner in pancreatic(More)
The interaction between nuclear receptors and coactivators provides an arena for testing whether protein-protein interactions may be inhibited by small molecule drug candidates. We provide evidence that a short cyclic peptide, containing a copy of the LXXLL nuclear receptor box pentapeptide, binds tightly and selectively to estrogen receptor alpha.(More)
Acyl carrier protein synthase (AcpS) catalyzes the formation of holo-ACP, which mediates the essential transfer of acyl fatty acid intermediates during the biosynthesis of fatty acids and lipids in the cell. Thus, AcpS plays an important role in bacterial fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis, making it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. We have(More)
It is widely believed that antigen heterogeneity and noninternalization of antigen-antibody complexes will severely limit the antitumor activity of monoclonal antibody-drug conjugates. The B72.3 monoclonal antibody binds to a tumor-associated antigen which is heterogeneously expressed in human carcinomas (J. Schlom, Cancer Res., 46: 3225-3238, 1986). We(More)
A conjugate of 4-desacetylvinblastine-3-carboxyhydrazide (DAVLBHY) and the glioma-reactive monoclonal antibody (mAb) 9.2.27 induced long-term suppression of tumor growth in athymic nude mice engrafted with U87MG human glioma cells. In vitro, DAVLBHY had the strongest antiproliferative activity (inhibitory concentration at which incorporation of(More)
Evidence is presented that the estrogen antagonist 4-hydroxytamoxifen (HT) can occupy not only the core binding pocket within the ligand-binding domain of estrogen receptor (ER) beta but also a second site on its surface. The crystal structure of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) associated with HT was determined to 2.2 A and revealed two molecules of HT(More)