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When recA protein binds cooperatively to single-stranded DNA to form filamentous nucleoprotein complexes, it becomes competent to hydrolyze ATP. No correlation exists between the ends of such complexes and the rate of ATP hydrolysis. ATP hydrolysis is not, therefore, restricted to the terminal subunits on cooperatively bound recA oligomers, but occurs(More)
New applications of laser microbeam irradiation to cell and developmental biology include a new instrument with a tunable wavelength (217- to 800-nanometer) laser microbeam and a wide range of energies and exposure durations (down to 25 X 10(-12) second). Laser microbeams can be used for microirradiation of selected nucleolar genetic regions and for laser(More)
The specificity of the staining of CREST scleroderma patient serum was investigated by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. The serum was found to stain the centromere region of mitotic chromosomes in many mammalian cell types by immunofluorescence. It also localized discrete spots in interphase nuclei which we have termed "presumptive(More)
The number, distribution, and nucleating capacity of microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) has been investigated in a variety of cultured mammalian cells. Most interphase cells contain a single MTOC that is localized at the centrosome region and corresponds to the centriole and pericentriolar material. MTOCs, like centrioles, become duplicated during the S(More)
An argon ion laser microbeam (488 and 514 nm) was used to selectively irradiate one of the two centriolar regions of rat kangaroo Potorous tridactylis (PtK2) prophase cells in vitro. The cells were sensitized to the laser radiation by treatment with acridine orange (0.1-0.2 mug/ml). Ultrastructural examination of the irradiated centriolar regions(More)
The crystal structure of the cyclin D-dependent kinase Cdk6 bound to the p19 INK4d protein has been determined at 1.9 A resolution. The results provide the first structural information for a cyclin D-dependent protein kinase and show how the INK4 family of CDK inhibitors bind. The structure indicates that the conformational changes induced by p19INK4d(More)
In cancer, the biochemical pathways that are dominated by the two tumour-suppressor proteins, p53 and Rb, are the most frequently disrupted. Cyclin D-dependent kinases phosphorylate Rb to control its activity and they are, in turn, specifically inhibited by the Ink4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) which cause arrest at the G1 phase of(More)
Light and electron microscopy were used to study somatic cell reduction division occurring spontaneously in tetraploid populations of rat kangaroo Potorous tridactylis (PtK2) cells in vitro. Light microscopy coupled with time-lapse photography documented the pattern of reduction division which includes an anaphase-like movement of double chromatid(More)
A class of regulators of eukaryotic gene expression contains a conserved amino acid sequence responsible for protein oligomerization and binding to DNA. This structure consists of an arginine- and lysine-rich basic region followed by a helix-loop-helix motif, which together mediate specific binding to DNA. Peptides were prepared that span this motif in the(More)
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play a key role in regulating the cell cycle. The cyclins, their activating agents, and endogenous CDK inhibitors are frequently mutated in human cancers, making CDKs interesting targets for cancer chemotherapy. Our aim is the discovery of selective CDK4/cyclin D1 inhibitors. An ATP-competitive pyrazolopyrimidinone CDK(More)