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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is often complicated by the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex (ADC). Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is an end product of tryptophan, metabolized through the kynurenine pathway (KP) that can act as an endogenous brain excitotoxin when produced and released by activated(More)
OBJECTIVES To explore how Australian general practitioners use pharmaceutical decision-support (PDS) systems; to determine GPs' perceptions of the deficiencies and strengths of these systems; and how they believe they can be improved. DESIGN AND SETTING Qualitative analysis of discussion from three focus groups of GPs (from one rural and two urban(More)
BACKGROUND Neurocognitive impairment remains prevalent, despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Differences between changes in cerebral function and alternative cARTs have not been prospectively assessed. METHODS Treatment-naive, HIV-1-infected individuals randomly allocated to commence cART (tenofovir-emtricitabine plus either efavirenz [arm(More)
OBJECTIVES Stavudine is widely used in Thailand and is associated with mitochondrial toxicity. Here, we evaluated the effect of switching from stavudine/didanosine to tenofovir/lamivudine on measures of metabolic and mitochondrial toxicity in Thai patients. METHODS Thirty-five Thai patients with full HIV RNA suppression were switched from(More)
BACKGROUND Universal access to first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection is becoming more of a reality in most low and middle income countries in Asia. However, second-line therapies are relatively scarce. METHODS AND FINDINGS We developed a mathematical model of an HIV epidemic in a Southeast Asian setting and used it to forecast the(More)
Running Head: Failure and attrition rates in antiretroviral therapy (ART) Antiretroviral therapy First-line/resistance/treatment failure Switching/second-line/salvage Survival/attrition/retention/mortality/loss to follow up Resource-limited countries: economics Abstract Background
BACKGROUND There are limited data of immunologic and virologic failure in Asian HIV-infected children using non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We examined the incidence rate of immunologic failure (IF) and virologic failure (VF) and the accuracy of using IF to predict VF in Thai(More)
OBJECTIVES Restoration of Cytomegalovirus-specific-CD4 T cell (CMV-Sp-CD4) responses partly accounts for the reduction of CMV-disease with antiretroviral-therapy (ART), but CMV-Sp-CD4 may also drive immune activation and immunosenescence. This study characterized the dynamics of CMV-Sp-CD4 after ART initiation and explored associations with CD4 T cell(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Deficiencies in antioxidants contribute to immune dysregulation and viral replication. To evaluate the correlation of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) levels on the treatment outcomes in HIV-infected children. SUBJECTS/METHODS HIV-infected Thai children 1-12 years old, CD4 15-24%, without severe HIV symptoms were included. Se and Zn(More)
Chloramphenicol (CP), a broad spectrum antibiotic, is eliminated in humans by glucuronidation. The primary UGT enzymes responsible for CP O-glucuronidation remain unidentified. We have previously identified the 3-O-CP (major) and 1-O-CP (minor) glucuronides by beta-glucuronidase hydrolysis, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and 1D/2D H NMR.(More)