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The role of astrocytes in the production of the neurotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN) and other products of the kynurenine pathway (KP) is controversial. Using cytokine-stimulated human astrocytes, we assayed key enzymes and products of the KP. We found that astrocytes lack kynurenine-hydroxylase so that large amounts of kynurenine (KYN) and kynurenic acid(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is often complicated by the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex (ADC). Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is an end product of tryptophan, metabolized through the kynurenine pathway (KP) that can act as an endogenous brain excitotoxin when produced and released by activated(More)
OBJECTIVES To explore how Australian general practitioners use pharmaceutical decision-support (PDS) systems; to determine GPs' perceptions of the deficiencies and strengths of these systems; and how they believe they can be improved. DESIGN AND SETTING Qualitative analysis of discussion from three focus groups of GPs (from one rural and two urban(More)
Activated macrophages produce quinolinic acid (QUIN), a neurotoxin, in several inflammatory brain diseases including AIDS dementia complex. We hypothesized that IL1-beta, IL6, transforming growth factor (TGF-beta2 and platelet activating factor could increase macrophage QUIN production. And that the HIV-1 proteins Nef, Tat and gp41 may also increase(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Deficiencies in antioxidants contribute to immune dysregulation and viral replication. To evaluate the correlation of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) levels on the treatment outcomes in HIV-infected children. SUBJECTS/METHODS HIV-infected Thai children 1-12 years old, CD4 15-24%, without severe HIV symptoms were included. Se and Zn(More)
BACKGROUND Universal access to first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection is becoming more of a reality in most low and middle income countries in Asia. However, second-line therapies are relatively scarce. METHODS AND FINDINGS We developed a mathematical model of an HIV epidemic in a Southeast Asian setting and used it to forecast the(More)
INTRODUCTION Cerebral function impairment remains problematic in subjects with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Using cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), we aimed to determine if abnormalities could be detected in neurologically asymptomatic HIV-infected(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has evolved rapidly since its beginnings. This analysis describes trends in first-line ART use in Asia and their impact on treatment outcomes. METHODS Patients in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database receiving first-line ART for ≥ 6 months were included. Predictors of treatment failure and treatment(More)
BACKGROUND There are limited data of immunologic and virologic failure in Asian HIV-infected children using non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We examined the incidence rate of immunologic failure (IF) and virologic failure (VF) and the accuracy of using IF to predict VF in Thai(More)
BACKGROUND Perinatal use of combination antiretroviral therapy dramatically reduces vertical (mother-to-child) transmission of HIV but has led to a growing population of children with perinatal HIV-exposure but uninfected (HEU). HIV can cause neurological injury among children born with infection, but the neuroanatomical and developmental effects in HEU(More)