Stephen K Obaro

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BACKGROUND Pneumonia is estimated to cause 2 million deaths every year in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most important cause of severe pneumonia. We aimed to assess the efficacy of a nine-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children. METHODS We undertook a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in eastern Gambia. Children age(More)
A highly invasive form of non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease has recently been documented in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common Salmonella enterica serovar causing this disease is Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium). We applied whole-genome sequence–based phylogenetic methods to define the population structure of sub-Saharan African(More)
BACKGROUND Routine immunisation of infants in The Gambia with a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine began in May, 1997. We investigated the effectiveness of the vaccine when delivered through the expanded programme on immunisation and the effect of national immunisation on incidence of Hib disease. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Reports of the etiology of bacteremia in children from Nigeria are sparse and have been confounded by wide spread non-prescription antibiotic use and suboptimal laboratory culture techniques. We aimed to determine causative agents and underlying predisposing conditions of bacteremia in Nigerian children using data arising during the introduction(More)
Pneumococcal antigen was present in urine from 49 of 102 well Gambian children. Eighty-nine of the 102 were nasopharyngeal carriers of pneumococci. The positive predictive value for carriage was 96%, and the negative predictive value was 22%. The test is not useful for predicting etiology of disease in populations with a high rate of nasopharyngeal carriage(More)
Infection is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in sickle cell disease (SCD). The sickle gene confers an increased susceptibility to infection, especially to certain bacterial pathogens, and at the same time infection provokes a cascade of SCD-specific pathophysiological changes. Historically, infection is a major cause of mortality in(More)
Severe malarial anaemia (SMA) is a common complication of Plasmodium falciparum infections, resulting in mortality rates that may exceed 30% in paediatric populations residing in holoendemic transmission areas. One strategy for reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with SMA is to identify clinical predictors that can be readily recognized by(More)
BACKGROUND Unrelenting high morbidity and mortality have mandated that immunogenic vaccines be used to combat pneumococcal disease in infants. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a nonavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and the antigenic interaction when administered simultaneously with diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccines. (More)
The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) typhoid is a major global health threat affecting many countries where the disease is endemic. Here whole-genome sequence analysis of 1,832 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) identifies a single dominant MDR lineage, H58, that has emerged and spread throughout Asia and Africa over the last 30 years. Our(More)