Stephen K. Chandiwana

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  • M E Woolhouse, C Dye, +10 authors R M Anderson
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
  • 1997
From an analysis of the distributions of measures of transmission rates among hosts, we identify an empirical relationship suggesting that, typically, 20% of the host population contributes at least 80% of the net transmission potential, as measured by the basic reproduction number, R0. This is an example of a statistical pattern known as the 20/80 rule.(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-1 prevalence typically rises more rapidly at young ages in women than in men in sub-Saharan Africa. Greater susceptibility to infection on exposure in women is believed to be a contributory factor as is greater exposure to previously infected sexual partners of the opposite sex. We investigated the latter hypothesis using data from a field(More)
Few sub-Saharan African countries have witnessed declines in HIV prevalence, and only Uganda has compelling evidence for a decline founded on sexual behavior change. We report a decline in HIV prevalence in eastern Zimbabwe between 1998 and 2003 associated with sexual behavior change in four distinct socioeconomic strata. HIV prevalence fell most steeply at(More)
AIDS has increased the number of orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs) in sub-Saharan Africa who could suffer detrimental life experiences. We investigated whether OVCs have heightened risks of adverse reproductive health outcomes including HIV infection. Data on HIV infection, sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms and pregnancy, and common risk(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-1 control in sub-Saharan Africa requires cost-effective and sustainable programmes that promote behaviour change and reduce cofactor sexually transmitted infections (STIs) at the population and individual levels. METHODS AND FINDINGS We measured the feasibility of community-based peer education, free condom distribution, income-generating(More)
The aim of the study was to use population-based data from 689 adults to describe the socio-demographic, behavioural and biomedical correlates of HIV infection and aid identification of effective HIV control strategies for rural Zimbabwe. Dried blood spot and urine samples were collected for HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing and(More)
Variations in the amount of water contact made by individuals and in the amount of water contact made at different sites may have significant impacts on patterns of human schistosome infection. Previous studies have reported variations in the rate of water contact and differences in the sites used between age/sex classes, but there is limited information on(More)
This article reports on evidence for behaviour change in response to AIDS among women in two rural areas of Manicaland Province, Zimbabwe. It examines self-reported data on two overlapping areas of behaviour: (1) actions taken to avoid HIV-1 infection; and (2) fertility practices. The latter were used to assess the validity of the former, given that(More)
Human immune responses to schistosome infection have been characterized in detail. But there has been controversy over the relative importance of ecological factors (variation in exposure to infection) and immunological factors (acquired immunity) in determining the relationships between levels of infection and age typically found in areas where infection(More)
Surveys for schistosomiasis of 2498 people of various ages from 22 villages in northeast Zimbabwe are reported. A high prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium (53.1%) and a medium prevalence of S. mansoni (17.5%) were found. Schistosoma haematobium prevalence among males was significantly higher than among females. Age prevalence curves for both schistosome(More)