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1. Long chain fatty acids have recently been identified as agonists for the G protein-coupled receptors GPR40 and GPR120. Here, we present the first description of GW9508, a small-molecule agonist of the fatty acid receptors GPR40 and GPR120. In addition, we also describe the pharmacology of GW1100, a selective GPR40 antagonist. These molecules were used to(More)
4-{[4-({(3R)-1-Butyl-3-[(R)-cyclohexyl(hydroxy)methyl]-2,5dioxo-1,4,9-triazaspiro[5.5]undec-9-yl}methyl)phenyl]oxy}benzoic acid hydrochloride (873140) is a potent noncompetitive allosteric antagonist of the CCR5 receptor (pK(B) = 8.6 +/- 0.07; 95% CI, 8.5 to 8.8) with concomitantly potent antiviral effects for HIV-1. In this article, the receptor-based(More)
The exploration of a diarylsulfonamide series of free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4/GPR120) agonists is described. This work led to the identification of selective FFA4 agonist 8 (GSK137647A) and selective FFA4 antagonist 39. The in vitro profile of compounds 8 and 39 is presented herein.
The combined factors that regulate the expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) during development of the nervous system are largely unknown. To identify such factors for Ng-CAM, the neuron-glia CAM, constructs containing portions of the 5' end of the Ng-CAM gene were examined for activity after transfection into N2A neuroblastoma and NIH3T3 cells.(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To determine the pathogenesis and clinical course of lactic acidosis in adults receiving standard medical care. DESIGN Placebo arm of a 5-year prospective, randomized, blinded study comparing placebo and dichloroacetate as specific lactate-lowering therapy. Each patient received intravenous saline placebo in addition to conventional(More)
Exposure of several different animal models to O2-induced lung injury has revealed marked differences in sensitivity of various species to O2 damage. These differences may be due in part to variation of cellular antioxidant defenses. To characterize lung antioxidant enzyme activities in different species, we measured lung activities of glutathione(More)
Insurmountable antagonism (maximal response to the agonist depressed) can result from a temporal inequilibrium involving a slow offset orthosteric antagonist or be the result of an allosteric modulation of the receptor. The former mechanism is operative when the antagonist, agonist, and receptors cannot come to proper equilibrium during the time allotted(More)
N,N'-bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitro-sourea (BCNU) is a potent inhibitor of glutathione reductase (GSSG-Red) activity in both tissues and cells. We examined the effects of treating alveolar type II cells with BCNU and found that a marked decrease in cellular GSSG-Red activity occurred in these cells associated with a time-dependent increase in cellular(More)
Glutathione concentrations were measured in rat bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) obtained from normal rats and rats exposed to a fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) of 0.8 for up to 5 days. We also perturbed rat lung glutathione concentrations by administering the compound diisopropylidene acetone (phorone) to a separate group of animals and correlated(More)