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Semantic priming occurs when a subject is faster in recognising a target word when it is preceded by a related word compared to an unrelated word. The effect is attributed to automatic or controlled processing mechanisms elicited by short or long interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between primes and targets. We employed event-related functional magnetic(More)
In the picture-word interference task, naming responses are facilitated when a distractor word is orthographically and phonologically related to the depicted object as compared to an unrelated word. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the cerebral hemodynamic responses associated with this priming effect. Serial(More)
The authors examined the effects of smoking expectancy on cue-reactivity among those motivated and those unmotivated to quit smoking using functional MRI. Cue-elicited activation was observed in the rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC) in smokers who expected to smoke within seconds, but not in those who expected to have to wait hours before having the chance to(More)
The first few days of an attempt to quit smoking are marked by impairments in cognitive domains, such as working memory and attention. These cognitive impairments have been linked to increased risk for relapse. Little is known about individual differences in the cognitive impairments that accompany deprivation or the neural processing reflected in those(More)
As a group, cigarette smokers exhibit blunted subjective, behavioral, and neurobiological responses to nondrug incentives and rewards, relative to nonsmokers. Findings from recent studies suggest, however, that there are large individual differences in the devaluation of nondrug rewards among smokers. Moreover, this variability appears to have significant(More)
INTRODUCTION The estimation of visual acuity (VA) via visual evoked potentials (VEP) is a valuable measure for all preverbal and non-verbal subjects whether adults or children. The aim of this study is to introduce a novel technique of VEP acquisition based on estimates of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and comparison to a predefined detection threshold. We(More)
The construct of craving has been central to addiction research for more than 50 years. Only recently have investigators begun to apply functional neuroimaging techniques to the study of drug cue reactivity, and a small but growing number of studies implicate a distributed system of brain regions in the pathogenesis of craving. The internal consistency of(More)
In recent years, research applying functional neuroimaging to the study of cue-elicited drug craving has emerged. This research has begun to identify a distributed system of brain activity during drug craving. A review of this literature suggested that expectations regarding the opportunity to use a drug affected the pattern of neural responses elicited by(More)
Is computer-synthesized speech as persuasive as the human voice when presenting an argument? After completing an attitude pretest, 193 participants were randomly assigned to listen to a persuasive appeal under three conditions: a high-quality synthesized speech system (DECtalk Express), a low-quality synthesized speech system (Monologue), and a tape(More)