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Semantic priming occurs when a subject is faster in recognising a target word when it is preceded by a related word compared to an unrelated word. The effect is attributed to automatic or controlled processing mechanisms elicited by short or long interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between primes and targets. We employed event-related functional magnetic(More)
Prostacyclin (PGI(2)) and thromboxane (TxA(2)) are biological opposites; PGI(2), a vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet aggregation, limits the deleterious actions of TxA(2), a vasoconstrictor and platelet activator. The molecular mechanisms involved in the counterregulation of PGI(2)/TxA(2) signaling are unclear. We examined the interaction of the(More)
Dietary fish oil containing omega 3 highly unsaturated fatty acids has cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. Prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxanes are produced in vivo both from the omega 6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) and the omega 3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Certain beneficial effects of fish oil may result from altered PG(More)
The construct of craving has been central to addiction research for more than 50 years. Only recently have investigators begun to apply functional neuroimaging techniques to the study of drug cue reactivity, and a small but growing number of studies implicate a distributed system of brain regions in the pathogenesis of craving. The internal consistency of(More)
In recent years, research applying functional neuroimaging to the study of cue-elicited drug craving has emerged. This research has begun to identify a distributed system of brain activity during drug craving. A review of this literature suggested that expectations regarding the opportunity to use a drug affected the pattern of neural responses elicited by(More)
The authors examined the effects of smoking expectancy on cue-reactivity among those motivated and those unmotivated to quit smoking using functional MRI. Cue-elicited activation was observed in the rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC) in smokers who expected to smoke within seconds, but not in those who expected to have to wait hours before having the chance to(More)
In the picture-word interference task, naming responses are facilitated when a distractor word is orthographically and phonologically related to the depicted object as compared to an unrelated word. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the cerebral hemodynamic responses associated with this priming effect. Serial(More)
Pulse oximetry is commonly used as an arterial blood oxygen saturation (SaO2) measure. However, its other serial output, the photoplethysmography (PPG) signal, is not as well studied. Raw PPG signals can be used to estimate cardiovascular measures like pulse transit time (PTT) and possibly heart rate (HR). These timing-related measurements are heavily(More)
BACKGROUND Prostacyclin (PGI2) and thromboxane (TxA2) effect disparate outcomes for atherogenesis and the response to vascular injury; PGI2, a vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet aggregation, limits the deleterious actions of TxA2, a vasoconstrictor and platelet activator. Dimerization of their G protein-coupled receptors, IP and TP, evokes a modified(More)
As a group, cigarette smokers exhibit blunted subjective, behavioral, and neurobiological responses to nondrug incentives and rewards, relative to nonsmokers. Findings from recent studies suggest, however, that there are large individual differences in the devaluation of nondrug rewards among smokers. Moreover, this variability appears to have significant(More)