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Expression of a complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the mouse MyoD1 protein in a variety of fibroblast and adipoblast cell lines converts them to myogenic cells. Polyclonal antisera to fusion proteins containing the MyoD1 sequence show that MyoD1 is a phosphoprotein present in the nuclei of proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes but not expressed(More)
The expression of Myod is sufficient to convert a fibroblast to a skeletal muscle cell, and, as such, is a model system in developmental biology for studying how a single initiating event can orchestrate a highly complex and predictable response. Recent findings indicate that Myod functions in an instructive chromatin context and directly regulates genes(More)
Each of the myogenic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (MyoD, Myogenin, Myf-5, and MRF4) is capable of activating muscle-specific gene expression, yet distinct functions have not been ascribed to the individual proteins. We report here that MyoD and Myogenin mRNAs selectively accumulate in hindlimb muscles of the adult rat that differ in contractile(More)
To understand gene expression changes mediated by a polyglutamine repeat expansion in the human huntingtin protein, we used oligonucleotide DNA arrays to profile approximately 6000 striatal mRNAs in the R6/2 mouse, a transgenic Huntington's disease (HD) model. We found diminished levels of mRNAs encoding components of the neurotransmitter, calcium and(More)
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a common form of muscular dystrophy in adults that is foremost characterized by progressive wasting of muscles in the upper body. FSHD is associated with contraction of D4Z4 macrosatellite repeats on chromosome 4q35, but this contraction is pathogenic only in certain "permissive" chromosomal backgrounds.(More)
An expansion of a CTG repeat at the DM1 locus causes myotonic dystrophy (DM) by altering the expression of the two adjacent genes, DMPK and SIX5, and through a toxic effect of the repeat-containing RNA. Here we identify two CTCF-binding sites that flank the CTG repeat and form an insulator element between DMPK and SIX5. Methylation of these sites prevents(More)
The myogenic progenitors of epaxial (paraspinal and intercostal) and hypaxial (limb and abdominal wall) musculature are believed to originate in dorsal-medial and ventral-lateral domains, respectively, of the developing somite. To investigate the hypothesis that Myf-5 and MyoD have different roles in the development of epaxial and hypaxial musculature, we(More)
We used expression arrays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays to demonstrate that myogenesis consists of discrete subprograms of gene expression regulated by MyoD. Approximately 5% of assayed genes alter expression in a specific temporal sequence, and more than 1% are regulated by MyoD without the synthesis of additional transcription factors. MyoD(More)
To analyze the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of the myoD gene, we generated transgenic mice bearing a lacZ gene driven by a 6-kb 5'-flanking sequence of the mouse myoD gene including a proximal regulatory region (PRR) and a distal regulatory region (DRR), which are sufficient for activation of muscle-specific transcription in vitro. The expression(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that MyoD initiates a feed-forward regulation of skeletal muscle gene expression, predicting that MyoD binds directly to many genes expressed during differentiation. We have used chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing to identify genome-wide binding of MyoD in several skeletal muscle cell types. As(More)