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Actions of cytochalasin B (CB) on cytoskeletons and motility of growth cones from cultured Aplysia neurons were studied using a rapid flow perfusion chamber and digital video light microscopy. Living growth cones were observed using differential interference contrast optics and were also fixed at various time points to assay actin filament (F-actin) and(More)
During development, the formation of mature neural circuits requires the selective elimination of inappropriate synaptic connections. Here we show that C1q, the initiating protein in the classical complement cascade, is expressed by postnatal neurons in response to immature astrocytes and is localized to synapses throughout the postnatal CNS and retina.(More)
Little is known about presynaptic assembly during central nervous system synaptogenesis. Here we used time-lapse fluorescence imaging, immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy to study hippocampal neuronal cultures transfected with a fusion construct of the presynaptic vesicle protein VAMP and green fluorescent protein. Our results suggest that major(More)
Axo-dendritic synaptogenesis was examined in live hippocampal cell cultures using the fluorescent dyes DiO to label dendrites and FM 4-64 to label functional presynaptic boutons. As the first functional synaptic boutons appeared in these cultures, numerous filopodia (up to 10 micron long) were observed to extend transiently (mean lifetime 9.5 min) from(More)
To explore the relationship between axon arbor growth and synaptogenesis, developing retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon arbors in zebrafish optic tectum were imaged in vivo at high temporal and spatial resolution using two-photon microscopy. Individual RGC axons were dually labeled by expression of a cytosolic red fluorescent protein (DsRed Express) to mark(More)
The finding that astrocytes possess glutamate-sensitive ion channels hinted at a previously unrecognized signaling role for these cells. Now it is reported that cultured hippocampal astrocytes can respond to glutamate with a prompt and oscillatory elevation of cytoplasmic free calcium, visible through use of the fluorescent calcium indicator fluo-3. Two(More)
We used the fluorescent membrane probe FM 1-43 to label recycling synaptic vesicles within the presynaptic boutons of dissociated hippocampal neurons in culture. Quantitative time-lapse fluorescence imaging was employed in combination with rapid superfusion techniques to study the dynamics of synaptic vesicles within single boutons. This approach enabled us(More)
The form of a neuron's dendritic arbor determines the set of axons with which it may form synaptic contacts, thus establishing connectivity within neural circuits. However, the dynamic relationship between dendrite growth and synaptogenesis is not well understood. To observe both processes simultaneously, we performed long-term imaging of non-spiny(More)
Triacylglycerols are quantitatively the most important storage form of energy for eukaryotic cells. Acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC 2.3.1.20) catalyzes the terminal and only committed step in triacylglycerol synthesis, by using diacylglycerol and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. DGAT plays a fundamental role in the metabolism of cellular(More)