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Recent models from theoretical physics have predicted that mass-migrating animal groups may share group-level properties, irrespective of the type of animals in the group. One key prediction is that as the density of animals in the group increases, a rapid transition occurs from disordered movement of individuals within the group to highly aligned(More)
The lack of an adequate hominid fossil record in eastern Africa between 2 and 3 million years ago (Ma) has hampered investigations of early hominid phylogeny. Discovery of 2.5 Ma hominid cranial and dental remains from the Hata beds of Ethiopia's Middle Awash allows recognition of a new species of Australopithecus. This species is descended from(More)
Studies on nonsocial insects have elucidated the regulatory strategies employed to meet nutritional demands [1-3]. However, how social insects maintain the supply of an appropriate balance of nutrients at both a collective and an individual level remains unknown. Sociality complicates nutritional regulatory strategies [4-6]. First, the food entering a(More)
Diet affects both lifespan and reproduction [1-9], leading to the prediction that the contrasting reproductive strategies of the sexes should result in sex-specific effects of nutrition on fitness and longevity [6, 10] and favor different patterns of nutrient intake in males and females. However, males and females share most of their genome and intralocus(More)
Desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) can undergo a profound transformation between solitarious and gregarious forms, which involves widespread changes in behaviour, physiology and morphology. This phase change is triggered by the presence or absence of other locusts and occurs over a timescale ranging from hours, for some behaviours to change, to(More)
Desert locusts, Schistocerca gregaria, show extreme phenotypic plasticity, transforming between a little-seen solitarious phase and the notorious swarming gregarious phase depending on population density. An essential tipping point in the process of swarm formation is the initial switch from strong mutual aversion in solitarious locusts to coherent group(More)
It has been shown previously that some neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and substantia innominata respond to the sight of food, others to the taste of food, and others to the sight or taste of food, in the hungry monkey. It is shown here that feeding to satiety decreases the responses of hypothalamic neurons to the sight and/or taste of a food on which(More)
Many herbivores and omnivores adjust their food selection behavior to regulate the intake of multiple nutrients. Carnivores, however, are generally assumed to optimize the rate of prey capture rather than select prey according to nutrient composition. We showed experimentally that invertebrate predators can forage selectively for protein and lipids to(More)
Nutrition is critical to immune defence and resistance to pathogens, with consequences that affect the health, welfare, and reproductive success of individual organisms [1,2], and also has profound ecological and evolutionary implications [3–5]. In humans, under-nutrition, notably of protein, is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality due to(More)