Stephen J. Polyak

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The hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein has been controversially implicated in the inherent resistance of HCV to interferon (IFN) antiviral therapy in clinical studies. In this study, the relationship between NS5A mutations and selection pressures before and during antiviral therapy and virologic response to therapy were investigated.(More)
UNLABELLED Silymarin, an extract from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), and its purified flavonolignans have been recently shown to inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, both in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, we further characterized silymarin's antiviral actions. Silymarin had antiviral effects against hepatitis C virus cell culture (HCVcc)(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major cause of liver disease worldwide, is frequently resistant to the antiviral alpha interferon (IFN). The HCV nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein has been implicated in HCV antiviral resistance in many studies. NS5A antagonizes the IFN antiviral response in vitro, and one mechanism is via inhibition of a key IFN-induced enzyme, the(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major cause of liver disease worldwide, is frequently resistant to the antiviral alpha interferon (IFN). We have recently found that the HCV NS5A protein induces expression of the proinflammatory chemokine IL-8 to partially inhibit the antiviral actions of IFN in vitro. To extend these observations, in the present study we(More)
Approximately 200 million people throughout the world are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). One of the most striking features of HCV infection is its high propensity to establish persistence (approximately 70-80%) and progressive liver injury. Galectins are evolutionarily conserved glycan-binding proteins with diverse roles in innate and adaptive(More)
To evaluate the possibility that distinct viral quasispecies play a role in the pathogenesis of progressive hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we performed a detailed evaluation of HCV quasispecies before and after liver transplantation in five patients infected with HCV genotype 1, three of whom developed severe recurrent hepatitis C and two of whom(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a positive-strand RNA virus, is the major infectious agent responsible for causing chronic hepatitis. Currently, there is no vaccine for HCV infection, and the only therapy for chronic hepatitis C is largely ineffective. To investigate new genetic approaches to the management of HCV infection, six hammerhead ribozymes directed(More)
In infected humans, hepatitis C virus (HCV) exists as a quasispecies typically characterized by multiple nucleotide substitutions within the second envelope gene hypervariable region 1 (HVR1). In the current study, we used heteroduplex gel shift analysis (GSA) of HVR1 sequences amplified directly from patients' sera to define two patterns of HCV(More)
Silymarin prevents liver disease in many experimental rodent models, and is the most popular botanical medicine consumed by patients with hepatitis C. Silibinin is a major component of silymarin, consisting of the flavonolignans silybin A and silybin B, which are insoluble in aqueous solution. A chemically modified and soluble version of silibinin, SIL, has(More)
Arbidol (ARB) is an antiviral compound that was originally proven effective for treatment of influenza and several other respiratory viral infections. The broad spectrum of ARB anti-viral activity led us to evaluate its effect on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and replication in cell culture. Long-term ARB treatment of Huh7 cells chronically replicating(More)