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The PKR protein kinase is a critical component of the cellular antiviral and antiproliferative responses induced by interferons. Recent evidence indicates that the nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) can repress PKR function in vivo, possibly allowing HCV to escape the antiviral effects of interferon. NS5A presents a unique tool by(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) sets up a persistent infection in patients that likely involves a complex virus-host interaction. We previously found that the HCV nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein interacts with growth factor receptor-binding protein 2 (Grb2) adaptor protein and inhibits the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) by(More)
Silymarin, also known as milk thistle extract, inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and also displays antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory actions that contribute to its hepatoprotective effects. In the current study, we evaluated the hepatoprotective actions of the seven major flavonolignans and one flavonoid that comprise silymarin.(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major cause of non-A non-B hepatitis and a leading cause of liver dysfunction worldwide. While the current therapy for chronic HCV infection is parenteral administration of type 1 interferon (IFN), only a fraction of HCV-infected individuals completely respond to treatment. Previous studies have correlated the IFN sensitivity(More)
UNLABELLED Silymarin, an extract from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), and its purified flavonolignans have been recently shown to inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, both in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, we further characterized silymarin's antiviral actions. Silymarin had antiviral effects against hepatitis C virus cell culture (HCVcc)(More)
The nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been shown to interact with a variety of cellular proteins and implicated in the regulation of cell growth, interferon resistance, and other cellular signaling pathways, but the role of NS5A in HCV pathogenesis has not been firmly established. To further characterize this multifunctional(More)
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein has been controversially implicated in the inherent resistance of HCV to interferon (IFN) antiviral therapy in clinical studies. In this study, the relationship between NS5A mutations and selection pressures before and during antiviral therapy and virologic response to therapy were investigated.(More)
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein has been implicated in the inherent resistance of HCV to interferon (IFN) antiviral therapy in clinical studies. Biochemical studies have demonstrated that NS5A interacts in vitro with and inhibits the IFN-induced, RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR, and that NS5A interacts with at least one other(More)
UNLABELLED Impaired T-cell responses in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients have been reported to be associated with the establishment of HCV persistent infection. However, the mechanism for HCV-mediated T-cell dysfunction is yet to be defined. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play a pivotal role in suppressing T-cell responses. In this study(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects 3% of the world population and is the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Current standard of care is effective in only 50% of the patients, poorly tolerated, and associated with significant side effects and viral resistance. Recently, our group and others demonstrated that the HCV(More)