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OBJECTIVE To assess whether genetic variants involved in inflammation play a role in the sex difference in depression. Depression is, in part, genetically determined and inflammation has been implicated. Women are twice as likely to develop depression as men. METHODS We examined the association, separately in men and women, between seven single nucleotide(More)
INTRODUCTION Traditional survey methods for obtaining nationwide small-area estimates (SAEs) of childhood obesity are costly. This study applied a geocoded national health survey in a multilevel modeling framework to estimate prevalence of childhood obesity at the census block-group level. METHODS We constructed a multilevel logistic regression model to(More)
INTRODUCTION High sodium intake and low potassium intake, which can contribute to hypertension and risk of cardiovascular disease, may be related to the availability of healthful food in neighborhood stores. Despite evidence linking food environment with diet quality, this relationship has not been evaluated in the United States. The modified retail food(More)
To examine whether sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake during infancy is associated with dental caries by age 6, a longitudinal analysis of 1,274 U.S. children was conducted using data from the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II and the 2012 Follow-up Study at 6 years of age. The exposure variables were maternal-reported SSB intakes during(More)
Objective. To examine the proportion of health care providers who counsel adolescent patients on sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and the association with provider characteristics. Methods. This is a cross-sectional analysis of a survey of providers who see patients ≤17 years old. The proportion providing regular counseling on sports drinks (SDs),(More)
INTRODUCTION The Institute of Medicine and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended that government agencies use nutrition standards for foods and beverages sold and provided at their facilities. In this study, we examine written nutrition standards for foods sold or served in local government buildings or worksites among US(More)
INTRODUCTION Five key health-related behaviors for chronic disease prevention are never smoking, getting regular physical activity, consuming no alcohol or only moderate amounts, maintaining a normal body weight, and obtaining daily sufficient sleep. The objective of this study was to estimate the clustering of these 5 health-related behaviors among adults(More)
The ability to make healthy choices is influenced by where one lives, works, shops, and plays. Locally enacted policies and standards can influence these surroundings but little is known about the prevalence of such policies and standards that support healthier behaviors. In this paper, we describe the development of a survey questionnaire designed to(More)
BACKGROUND Increases in population and life expectancy of Americans may result in shortages of endocrinologists by 2020. This study aims to assess variations in geographic accessibility to endocrinologists in the US, by age group at state and county levels, and by urban/rural status, and distance. METHODS We used the 2012 National Provider Identifier(More)
INTRODUCTION Caloric intake among children could be reduced if sugar-sweetened beverages were replaced by plain water. School drinking water infrastructure is dictated in part by state plumbing codes, which generally require a minimum ratio of drinking fountains to students. Actual availability of drinking fountains in schools and how availability differs(More)