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The purpose of modelling the negative-feedback control mechanism of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in autoimmune (Hashimoto's) thyroiditis is to describe the clinical course of euthyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism for patients. Thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels are controlled by(More)
The functioning of natural killer (NK) cells as immune surveillance effector cells against tumors is explored. In part I (J. Math. Biol. 12, 363-373 (1981], it was predicted that susceptible tumors would be eliminated if they have parameter lambda 0 value negative. They would not be eliminated if lambda 0 greater than 0. As the lambda 0 less than 0 result(More)
To determine whether the persistent nature of hepatitis C infection is related to the emergence of antigenic variants driven by immune selection, we examined the sequence heterogeneity in a portion of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural 3 (NS3) gene of a patient infected over the course of more than 2 years. By PCR amplification, cloning, and(More)
BACKGROUND High coverage of personal protection measures that kill mosquitoes dramatically reduce malaria transmission where vector populations depend upon human blood. However, most primary malaria vectors outside of sub-Saharan Africa can be classified as "very zoophagic," meaning they feed occasionally (<10% of blood meals) upon humans, so personal(More)
Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), predominately Graves׳ disease and Hashimoto׳s thyroiditis, comprise the most common autoimmune diseases in humans. Both have the production of anti-thyroid antibody as an important aspect and both are much more prevalent in females, being at least 10 times more common than in males. Using these two clues, a hypothesis(More)
Using a transformation to a generalized Lienard system, theorems are presented that give conditions under which unique limit cycles for generalized ecological systems, including those of predator-prey form, exist. The generalized systems contain those studied by Rosenzweig and MacArthur (1963); Hsu, Hubbell, and Waltman (1978); Kazarinnoff and van den(More)
The utilization of computational models in immunology dates from the birth of the science. From the description of antibody-antigen binding to the structural models of receptors, models are utilized to bring fundamental understandings of the processes together with laboratory measurements to uncover implications of these data. In this review, an historical(More)
The probability of tumor extinction due to the action of cytotoxic cell populations is investigated by several one dimensional stochastic models of the population growth and elimination processes of a tumor. The several models are made necessary by the nonlinearity of the processes and the different parameter ranges explored. The deterministic form of the(More)
Although the head is more closely represented as an ellipsoid than a sphere, calculation in ellipsoidal coordinates is difficult. This paper presents a four shell ellipsoidal model, employing multipole expansion in ellipsoidal coordinates, for EEG, MEG, and evoked potential applications. Computational detail and insight into efficient calculation of the(More)
BACKGROUND Large-cage experiments indicate pyriproxifen (PPF) can be transferred from resting sites to aquatic habitats by Anopheles arabiensis--malaria vector mosquitoes to inhibit emergence of their own offspring. PPF coverage is amplified twice: (1) partial coverage of resting sites with PPF contamination results in far higher contamination coverage of(More)