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The recent advances in nanotechnology and the corresponding increase in the use of nanomaterials in products in every sector of society have resulted in uncertainties regarding environmental impacts. The objectives of this review are to introduce the key aspects pertaining to nanomaterials in the environment and to discuss what is known concerning their(More)
The risks associated with exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENM) will be determined in part by the processes that control their environmental fate and transformation. These processes act not only on ENM that might be released directly into the environment, but more importantly also on ENM in consumer products and those that have been released from the(More)
Ecotoxicology research is using many methods for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), but the collective experience from researchers has not been documented. This paper reports the practical issues for working with ENMs and suggests nano-specific modifications to protocols. The review considers generic practical issues, as well as specific issues for aquatic(More)
Advances in the study of the environmental fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been hampered by a lack of adequate techniques for the detection and quantification of ENMs at environmentally relevant concentrations in complex media. Analysis of ENMs differs from traditional chemical analysis because both(More)
To study the effects of complex environmental media on silver nanoparticle (AgNP) toxicity, AgNPs were added to microcosms with freshwater sediments and two species of aquatic plants (Potamogeton diversifolius and Egeria densa), followed by toxicity testing with microcosm surface water. Microcosms were designed with four environmental matrices in order to(More)
Daphnia magna were exposed for 21 d to the ecdysteroids, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E), the accepted molting hormone, and ponasterone A (PoA), an ecdysteroid found in some crustaceans and many plants. Daphnids were monitored for alterations in molting, fecundity, and survival time. The 20-E elicited no significant effects on molting frequency, and its(More)
Improper pesticide management can lead to environmental problems such as water quality degradation and ecological stress. Recent research in our laboratory has focused on development of constructed wetlands to assimilate pesticide-contaminated water. For improved aesthetics, these wetlands have been established with ornamental plant species. The(More)
This study examined the interactions between Daphnia magna and a water-soluble, lysophophatidylcholine coated single-walled carbon nanotube. D. magna were able to ingest the nanotubes through normal feeding behavior and utilize the lysophophatidylcholine coating as a food source. D. magna were able to modify the solubility of the nanotube, likely through(More)
Engineered carbon nanostructures, such as multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), are inherently hydrophobic and are not readily stable in aqueous media. However, the aqueous stability and bioavailability of these nanotubes may be influenced by the water quality parameters such as ionic strength, pH, and natural organic matter (NOM). Natural organic matter(More)
Due to the episodic nature in which organisms are exposed to non-point source pollutants, it is necessary to understand how they are affected by pulsed concentrations of contaminants. This is essential, as standard toxicity tests may not adequately simulate exposure scenarios for short-lived hydrophobic compounds, such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), a(More)