Stephen J. King

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A defect in microtubule (MT)-based transport contributes to the neuronal toxicity observed in Huntington's disease (HD). Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors show neuroprotective effects in this devastating neurodegenerative disorder. We report here that HDAC inhibitors, including trichostatin A (TSA), increase vesicular transport of brain-derived(More)
Cytoplasmic dynein supports long-range intracellular movements of cargo in vivo but does not appear to be a processive motor protein by itself. We show here that the dynein activator, dynactin, binds microtubules and increases the average length of cytoplasmic-dynein-driven movements without affecting the velocity or microtubule-stimulated ATPase kinetics(More)
Primates tend to be long-lived, and, except for humans, most primate females are able to reproduce into old age. Although aging in most mammals is accompanied by dental senescence due to advanced wear, primates have low-crowned teeth that wear down before old age. Because tooth wear alters crown features gradually, testing whether early dental senescence(More)
Cytoskeletal molecular motors belonging to the kinesin and dynein families transport cargos (for example, messenger RNA, endosomes, virus) on polymerized linear structures called microtubules in the cell. These 'nanomachines' use energy obtained from ATP hydrolysis to generate force, and move in a step-like manner on microtubules. Dynein has a complex and(More)
Cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin are megadalton-sized multisubunit molecules that function together as a cytoskeletal motor. In the present study, we explore the mechanism of dynein-dynactin binding in vitro and then extend our findings to an in vivo context. Solution binding assays were used to define binding domains in the dynein intermediate chain (IC)(More)
Motor-based intracellular transport and its regulation are crucial to the functioning of a cell. Disruption of transport is linked to Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. However, many fundamental aspects of transport are poorly understood. An important issue is how cells achieve and regulate efficient long-distance transport. Mounting evidence(More)
To gain a further understanding of axonemal dynein regulation, mutant strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that had defects in both phototactic behavior and flagellar motility were identified and characterized. ptm1, ptm2, and ptm3 mutant strains exhibited motility phenotypes that resembled those of known inner dynein arm region mutant strains, but did not(More)
Cytoplasmic dynein is the major microtubule minus-end-directed cellular motor. Most dynein activities require dynactin, but the mechanisms regulating cargo-dependent dynein-dynactin interaction are poorly understood. In this study, we focus on dynein-dynactin recruitment to cargo by the conserved motor adaptor Bicaudal D2 (BICD2). We show that dynein and(More)
Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) use particular microtubule-binding domains that allow them to interact with microtubules in a manner specific to their individual cellular functions. Here, we have identified a highly basic microtubule-binding domain in the p150 subunit of dynactin that is only present in the dynactin members of the CAP-Gly family of(More)
We recently proposed that regulating the single-to-multiple motor transition was a likely strategy for regulating kinesin-based transport in vivo. In this study, we use an in vitro bead assay coupled with an optical trap to investigate how this proposed regulatory mechanism affects dynein-based transport. We show that tau's regulation of kinesin function(More)