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Chromatin modifications, especially histone-tail acetylation, have been implicated in memory formation. Increased histone-tail acetylation induced by inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACis) facilitates learning and memory in wild-type mice as well as in mouse models of neurodegeneration. Harnessing the therapeutic potential of HDACis requires knowledge(More)
The Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene is disrupted by a balanced chromosomal translocation (1; 11) (q42; q14.3) in a Scottish family with a high incidence of major depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Subsequent studies provided indications that DISC1 plays a role in brain development. Here, we demonstrate that suppression of DISC1(More)
To pursue a systematic approach to the discovery of functional connections among diseases, genetic perturbation, and drug action, we have created the first installment of a reference collection of gene-expression profiles from cultured human cells treated with bioactive small molecules, together with pattern-matching software to mine these data. We(More)
Schizophrenia is a common disease with a complex aetiology, probably involving multiple and heterogeneous genetic factors. Here, by analysing the exome sequences of 2,536 schizophrenia cases and 2,543 controls, we demonstrate a polygenic burden primarily arising from rare (less than 1 in 10,000), disruptive mutations distributed across many genes.(More)
Previous work has identified alterations in histone acetylation in animal models of drug addiction and depression. However, the mechanisms which integrate drugs and stress with changes in chromatin structure remain unclear. Here, we identify the activity-dependent class II histone deacetylase, HDAC5, as a central integrator of these stimuli with changes in(More)
The broad study of histone deacetylases in chemistry, biology and medicine relies on tool compounds to derive mechanistic insights. A phylogenetic analysis of class I and II histone deacetylases (HDACs) as targets of a comprehensive, structurally diverse panel of inhibitors revealed unexpected isoform selectivity even among compounds widely perceived as(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized clinically by cognitive impairments that progress to dementia and death. The earliest symptoms of AD present as a relatively pure deficit in memory retrieval. Therefore, drug treatments that intervene in the early stages of AD by rescuing memory deficits could be promising therapies to(More)
Cocaine-induced alterations in gene expression cause changes in neuronal morphology and behavior that may underlie cocaine addiction. In mice, we identified an essential role for histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) dimethylation and the lysine dimethyltransferase G9a in cocaine-induced structural and behavioral plasticity. Repeated cocaine administration reduced(More)
A major obstacle for the discovery of psychoactive drugs is the inability to predict how small molecules will alter complex behaviors. We report the development and application of a high-throughput, quantitative screen for drugs that alter the behavior of larval zebrafish. We found that the multidimensional nature of observed phenotypes enabled the(More)
Aberrant cell-cycle activity and DNA damage are emerging as important pathological components in various neurodegenerative conditions. However, their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that deregulation of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) activity by p25/Cdk5 induces aberrant cell-cycle activity and double-strand DNA breaks leading to(More)