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The major physiological stimulus for the secretion of insulin from the pancreatic beta-cell is an increase in the plasma glucose concentration. It is well established that glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is associated with the appearance of electrical activity in the beta-cell; glucose concentrations above the threshold level for insulin release(More)
Important questions remain concerning how elevated blood glucose levels are coupled to insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells and how this process is impaired in type 2 diabetes. Glucose uptake and metabolism in beta cells cause the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) to increase to a degree necessary and sufficient for triggering insulin(More)
AIMS The beta-cell ATP-sensitive potassium channel consists of two subunits, SUR1 and Kir6.2. Population association studies have shown that three variants in SUR1 and one in Kir6.2 are associated with Type 2 diabetes. These polymorphisms do not result in a functional change or affect splicing, suggesting that they could be in linkage disequilibrium with a(More)
The oxidation of some exogenous substrates and their effects on ATP content and insulin release in mouse pancreatic islets were measured. The ATP concentration of islets incubated without exogenous substrate shows a gradual decrease, which can be prevented by glucose or mannose (20mm) or leucine (2.5mm); d-glyceraldehyde (5mm) is as effective as glucose(More)
How different extracellular stimuli can evoke different spatiotemporal Ca2+ signals is uncertain. We have elucidated a novel paradigm whereby different agonists use different Ca2+-storing organelles ("organelle selection") to evoke unique responses. Some agonists select the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and others select lysosome-related (acidic) organelles,(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS The neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) could participate in the regulation of the endocrine functions of islets of Langerhans. We investigated the role of the metabotropic glutamate (mGluRs) and GABA(B) (GABA(B)Rs) receptors in this process. METHODS We studied the expression of mGluRs and GABA(B)Rs in rat and(More)
Glucose-dependent sequestration of Ca2+ into endoplasmic reticulum and its subsequent release play an important role in the control of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, which regulates insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. The active uptake of cytosolic Ca2+ into endoplasmic reticulum is mediated by sarco-(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases(More)
We have investigated protein interactions involved in pancreatic beta-cell ATP-sensitive potassium channel assembly. These channels, which are of key importance for control of insulin release, are a hetero-oligomeric complex of pore-forming Kir6.2 subunits and sulfonylurea receptor (SUR1) subunits with two nucleotide-binding domains (NBD1 and NBD2). We(More)