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Cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the beta- and gamma-secretases generates the amino and carboxy termini, respectively, of the A beta amyloidogenic peptides A beta40 and A beta42--the major constituents of the amyloid plaques in the brain parenchyma of Alzheimer's disease patients. There is evidence that the polytopic membrane-spanning(More)
gamma-Secretase is a membrane-associated protease that cleaves within the transmembrane region of amyloid precursor protein to generate the C termini of the two Abeta peptide isoforms, Abeta40 and Abeta42. Here we report the detergent solubilization and partial characterization of gamma-secretase. The activity of solubilized gamma-secretase was measured(More)
We have addressed the key deficiency of noncovalent pyridinone acetamide thrombin inhibitor L-374,087 (1), namely, its modest half-lives in animals, by making a chemically stable 3-alkylaminopyrazinone bioisostere for its 3-sulfonylaminopyridinone core. Compound 3 (L-375,378), the closest aminopyrazinone analogue of 1, has comparable selectivity and(More)
beta-Amyloid peptides (Abeta40 and Abeta42) are the major constituents of amyloid plaques, which are one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Abeta is derived from sequential cleavages of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta- and gamma-secretases. gamma-Secretase consists of at least four proteins where presenilins (PS1 and PS2 or PS) are(More)
Ghrelin, through action on its receptor, GH secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a), exerts a variety of metabolic functions including stimulation of appetite and weight gain and suppression of insulin secretion. In the present study, we examined the effects of novel small-molecule GHS-R1a antagonists on insulin secretion, glucose tolerance, and weight(More)
beta-Secretase (BACE) is a membrane-bound aspartyl protease that cleaves the amyloid precursor protein to generate the N terminus of the amyloid beta peptide. BACE is expressed as a precursor protein containing Pre, Pro, protease, transmembrane, and cytosolic domains. A soluble BACE derivative (PreProBACE460) that is truncated between the protease and(More)
A new member of the carboxypeptidase gene family, carboxypeptidase A2 (CPA2), has been identified from the predicted amino acid sequence of a rat pancreatic cDNA clone. In vivo recombination and in situ hybridization techniques employing the CPA2 cDNA resulted in the isolation of two genomic clones spanning the 25-kilobase pair rat CPA2 gene. Evolutionary(More)
Liver X receptors (LXRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that coordinate regulation of gene expression involved in several cellular functions but most notably cholesterol homeostasis encompassing cholesterol transport, catabolism, and absorption. WAY-252623 (LXR-623) is a highly selective and orally bioavailable synthetic modulator of LXR, which(More)
Early studies in these laboratories of peptidomimetic structures containing a basic P1 moiety led to the highly potent and selective thrombin inhibitors 2 (Ki = 5.0 nM) and 3 (Ki = 0.1 nM). However, neither attains significant blood levels upon oral administration to rats and dogs. With the aim of improving pharmacokinetic properties via a more diverse(More)
Nucleotide sequencing of a rat carboxypeptidase B (CPB) cDNA and direct sequencing of the CPB mRNA via primer extension on pancreatic polyadenylated RNA has yielded the complete amino acid sequence of rat CPB. The rat enzyme is synthesized as a precursor species containing a large amino-terminal fragment (108 amino acids) that contributes a putative signal(More)