Stephen J. Gardell

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Cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the beta- and gamma-secretases generates the amino and carboxy termini, respectively, of the A beta amyloidogenic peptides A beta40 and A beta42--the major constituents of the amyloid plaques in the brain parenchyma of Alzheimer's disease patients. There is evidence that the polytopic membrane-spanning(More)
gamma-Secretase is a membrane-associated protease that cleaves within the transmembrane region of amyloid precursor protein to generate the C termini of the two Abeta peptide isoforms, Abeta40 and Abeta42. Here we report the detergent solubilization and partial characterization of gamma-secretase. The activity of solubilized gamma-secretase was measured(More)
Ghrelin, through action on its receptor, GH secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a), exerts a variety of metabolic functions including stimulation of appetite and weight gain and suppression of insulin secretion. In the present study, we examined the effects of novel small-molecule GHS-R1a antagonists on insulin secretion, glucose tolerance, and weight(More)
  • X P Shi, E Chen, +12 authors S J Gardell
  • The Journal of biological chemistry
  • 2001
beta-Secretase (BACE) is a membrane-bound aspartyl protease that cleaves the amyloid precursor protein to generate the N terminus of the amyloid beta peptide. BACE is expressed as a precursor protein containing Pre, Pro, protease, transmembrane, and cytosolic domains. A soluble BACE derivative (PreProBACE460) that is truncated between the protease and(More)
A new member of the carboxypeptidase gene family, carboxypeptidase A2 (CPA2), has been identified from the predicted amino acid sequence of a rat pancreatic cDNA clone. In vivo recombination and in situ hybridization techniques employing the CPA2 cDNA resulted in the isolation of two genomic clones spanning the 25-kilobase pair rat CPA2 gene. Evolutionary(More)
Liver X receptors (LXRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that coordinate regulation of gene expression involved in several cellular functions but most notably cholesterol homeostasis encompassing cholesterol transport, catabolism, and absorption. WAY-252623 (LXR-623) is a highly selective and orally bioavailable synthetic modulator of LXR, which(More)
Presenilin-1 (PS1) and presenilin 2 (PS2) are proposed to be transmembrane aspartyl proteases that cleave amyloid precursor protein and Notch. PS1- and PS2-mediated activities were individually characterized using blastocyst-derived (BD) cells and membranes from PS1+/--PS2-/- and PS1-/-PS2+/+ mice, respectively. The relative amounts of PS1 and PS2 in the(More)
Gap junction uncoupling can alter conduction pathways and promote cardiac re-entry mechanisms that potentiate many supraventricular arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL). Our objective was to determine whether GAP-134 [(2S,4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamido-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid], a small dipeptide gap junction(More)
The amyloid hypothesis states that a variety of neurotoxic beta-amyloid (Abeta) species contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Accordingly, a key determinant of disease onset and progression is the appropriate balance between Abeta production and clearance. Enzymes responsible for the degradation of Abeta are not well understood, and, thus(More)
The role of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in the development of atherosclerosis has been unclear. Here, LDL receptor (LDLR(-/-)) or apolipoprotein E (apoE(-/-)) female or male mice were fed a Western diet and treated with a potent synthetic FXR agonist, WAY-362450. Activation of FXR blocked diet-induced hypertriglyceridemia and elevations of non-HDL(More)