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Cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the beta- and gamma-secretases generates the amino and carboxy termini, respectively, of the A beta amyloidogenic peptides A beta40 and A beta42--the major constituents of the amyloid plaques in the brain parenchyma of Alzheimer's disease patients. There is evidence that the polytopic membrane-spanning(More)
beta-Amyloid peptides (Abeta40 and Abeta42) are the major constituents of amyloid plaques, which are one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Abeta is derived from sequential cleavages of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta- and gamma-secretases. gamma-Secretase consists of at least four proteins where presenilins (PS1 and PS2 or PS) are(More)
Presenilin-1 (PS1) and presenilin 2 (PS2) are proposed to be transmembrane aspartyl proteases that cleave amyloid precursor protein and Notch. PS1- and PS2-mediated activities were individually characterized using blastocyst-derived (BD) cells and membranes from PS1+/--PS2-/- and PS1-/-PS2+/+ mice, respectively. The relative amounts of PS1 and PS2 in the(More)
gamma-Secretase is a membrane-bound protease that cleaves within the transmembrane region of amyloid precursor protein to generate the C-termini of the Abeta peptides which are believed to play a central role in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease. An in vitro gamma-secretase assay using a recombinant substrate C100Flag has been developed to(More)
The antiarrhythmic dipeptide, GAP-134, ([2S,4R]-1[2-aminoacetyl]-4-benzamido-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid) was evaluated in canine ischemia/reperfusion model. In dogs subjected to 60-minute ischemia and 4-hour reperfusion, GAP-134 was administered 10 minutes before reperfusion as a bolus + intravenous (IV) infusion. The doses administered were 0.25(More)
Gap junction uncoupling can alter conduction pathways and promote cardiac re-entry mechanisms that potentiate many supraventricular arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL). Our objective was to determine whether GAP-134 [(2S,4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamido-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid], a small dipeptide gap junction(More)
The small molecule direct thrombin inhibitor L-374,087 was characterized across species in an in vitro activated partial thromboplastin clotting time (aPTT) assay and in vivo in rhesus monkey and dog thrombosis models. In vitro in rhesus, dog, and human plasma, L-374,087 concentrations eliciting 2-fold increases in aPTT were 0.25, 1.9, and 0.28 microM,(More)
The residue Tyr 248 of carboxypeptidase A (CPA) is thought to play a role in catalysis by contributing a proton to the incipient amine anion generated during cleavage of peptide substrates. To test this hypothesis we have modified the rat CPA cDNA by site-directed mutagenesis so that the codon for Tyr 248 is replaced by that for Phe. Here, we report the(More)
Atenolol, a commonly prescribed β blocker for hypertension, is also associated with adverse cardiometabolic effects such as hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. Knowledge of the mechanistic underpinnings of these adverse effects of atenolol is incomplete. We sought to identify biomarkers associated with risk for these untoward effects of atenolol. We measured(More)
Profiling of acylcarnitines (ACs) in tissues and biological fluids by mass spectrometry is a powerful approach to examine the impact of genetic, pharmacological, and environmental factors on intermediary metabolism. The AC pool exhibits rapid changes in composition and abundance in response to altered cellular fuel catabolism. However, the mercurial nature(More)
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