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CONTEXT Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with behavioral and neurophysiological evidence of mood-congruent processing biases toward explicitly presented, emotionally valenced stimuli. However, few studies have investigated such biases toward implicitly presented stimuli. OBJECTIVE To investigate differential amygdala responses to sad, happy,(More)
Several lines of evidence implicate the amygdala in face-emotion processing, particularly for fearful facial expressions. Related findings suggest that face-emotion processing engages the amygdala within an interconnected circuitry that can be studied using a functional-connectivity approach. Past work also underscores important functional changes in the(More)
BACKGROUND Pediatric bipolar disorder (BD), a highly debilitating illness, is characterized by amygdala abnormalities, i.e., volume reduction and hyperactivation during face processing. Evidence of perturbed amygdala functional connectivity with other brain regions would implicate a distributed neural circuit in the pathophysiology of BD, and would further(More)
Reflecting a paradigm shift in clinical neuroscience, many chronic psychiatric illnesses are now hypothesized to result from perturbed neural development. However, most work in this area focuses on schizophrenia. Here, we extend this paradigm to pediatric bipolar disorder (BD), thus demonstrating traction in the developmental psychobiology perspective. To(More)
CONTEXT Few studies directly compare amygdala function in depressive and anxiety disorders. Data from longitudinal research emphasize the need for such studies in adolescents. OBJECTIVE To compare amygdala response to varying attention and emotion conditions among adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) or anxiety disorders, relative to(More)
OBJECTIVE Deficits in motor inhibition may contribute to impulsivity and irritability in children with bipolar disorder. Studies of the neural circuitry engaged during failed motor inhibition in pediatric bipolar disorder may increase our understanding of the pathophysiology of the illness. The authors tested the hypothesis that children with bipolar(More)
BACKGROUND Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with both dysfunction of the central serotonergic system and abnormal responses to emotional stimuli. We used acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to investigate the effect of temporarily reducing brain serotonin synthesis on neural and behavioral responses to emotional stimuli in remitted MDD(More)
BACKGROUND There is debate as to whether chronic irritability (operationalized as severe mood dysregulation, SMD) is a developmental form of bipolar disorder (BD). Although structural brain abnormalities in BD have been demonstrated, no study compares neuroanatomy among SMD, BD, and healthy volunteers (HV) either cross-sectionally or over time. Furthermore,(More)
BACKGROUND Although major depressive disorder (MDD) represents one of the most serious psychiatric problems afflicting adolescents, efforts to understand the neural circuitry of adolescent MDD have lagged behind those of adult MDD. This study tests the hypothesis that adolescent MDD is associated with abnormal amygdala activity during evocative-face(More)
OBJECTIVE To understand disorder-unique and common pathophysiology, studies in multiple patient groups with overlapping symptoms are needed. Deficits in emotion processing and hyperarousal symptoms are prominent features of bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and severe mood dysregulation. The authors compared amygdala(More)